Answers should address all components of the question. Therefore, paraphrasing the questions and using it in your response will ensure all parts are answered. Answer must be in complete sentences, thorough with proper source citations and references.

Answers should address all components of the question. Therefore, paraphrasing the questions and using it in your response will ensure all parts are answered. Answer must be in complete sentences, thorough with proper source citations and references.

1. Managerial Epidemiology: What is the cost-effectiveness analysis and what is it used for in healthcare and public health? Provide an example study.

2. Qualitative, Quantitative (Cause-Effect): You are the Chief Operating Officer of a hospital. The Human Resources Director reports to you. Two of your valued Directors have a random drug screening for controlled substances with a group of hospital cohorts, and the result comes up as positive for heroine. Your experience with epidemiology and your understanding of cause-effect makes you skeptical of these general screening results. You request that the specimens be sent out to a specialty lab for confirmatory testing with gas chromatography specific for heroine. The results of the confirmatory testing show that both Directors are negative (0 mg/dl) for all control substances, including heroine. A further investigation revealed that both Directors attended a morning meeting the day of the random test and had eaten poppy seed muffins. You do research and find that poppy seed muffins produce a byproduct in the body that mimics opiates/heroine in a screening.
3. Discuss why these results occurred , i.e., the two very different results between a screening, and the confirmatory test in terms of a) qualitative and b) quantitative testing, c) specificity, d) reliability.

4. Research Methods: Why is the randomized clinical trial (RCT) research considered the “gold standard” in clinical epidemiology research? What is an IRB and why is it requirement when performing research with human beings?

5. Decision Making: Clinical epidemiology research should be based on empirical evident. Define empirical evidence and what it means in decision making in both private and public health decision making in regard to interventions, i.e., the implementation of medical testing, processes or public health programs.
6. Risk Factor Research: Why is the Framingham Heart Study a pivotal research program in healthcare today? What are some of the milestones the study has given to clinical epidemiology?

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