SOLUTION: UTSA Job Satisfaction Involvement and Organizational Commitment Paper
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ALWAYS LEARNING A01_ROBB3859_14_SE_FM.indd 1 24/09/16 11:56 am This page intentionally left blank A01_HANL4898_08_SE_FM.indd 2 24/12/14 12:49 PM Fourteenth Edition Essentials of Organizational Behavior Stephen P. Robbins San Diego State University Timothy A. Judge The Ohio State University New York, NY A01_ROBB3859_14_SE_FM.indd 3 24/09/16 11:56 am Vice President, Business Publishing: Donna Battista Director of Portfolio Management: Stephanie Wall Portfolio Manager: Kris Ellis-Levy Editorial Assistant: Hannah Lamarre Vice President, Result Marketing: Roxanne McCarley Director of Strategic Marketing: Brad Parkins Strategic Marketing Manager: Deborah Strickland Product Marketer: Becky Brown Field Marketing Manager: Lenny Ann Kucenski Product Marketing Assistant: Jessica Quazza Vice President, Production and Digital Studio, Arts and Business: Etain O’Dea Director of Production, Business: Jeff Holcomb Managing Producer, Business: Ashley Santora Content Producer: Claudia Fernandes Operations Specialist: Carol Melville Creative Director: Blair Brown Manager, Acquirements Tools: Brian Surette Content Developer, Acquirements Tools: Lindsey Sloan Managing Producer, Digital Studio, Arts and Business: Diane Lombardo Digital Studio Producer: Monique Lawrence Digital Studio Producer: Alana Coles Full-Service Project Management and Composition: Cenveo® Publisher Services Interior and Cover Designer: Cenveo® Publisher Services Cover Art: LeitnerR/Fotolia Printer/Binder: RR Donnelley/Crawfordsville Cover Printer: Phoenix Color/Hagerstown Copyright © 2018, 2016, 2014 by Pearson Education, Inc. or its affiliates. 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Unless incorrectly declared herein, any third-party employmentmarks, logos, or icons that may tally in this employment are the estate of their relative possessors, and any references to third-party employmentmarks, logos, icons, or other employment garb are for absolute or picturesque purposes only. Such references are not planned to involve any sponsorship, endorsement, constructorization, or furtherance of Pearson’s results by the owners of such marks, or any harmony among the possessor and Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates, constructors, licensees, or distributors. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Names: Robbins, Stephen P., constructor. | Judge, Tim, constructor. Title: Essentials of organizational deportment / Stephen P. Robbins, San Diego State University, Timothy A. Judge, University of Notre Dame. Description: Fourteen edition. | Boston : Pearson Education,  | Includes index. Identifiers: LCCN 2016022886 (print) | LCCN 2016034760 (ebook) | ISBN 9780134523859 (pbk. : alk. disquisition) | ISBN 9780134527314 Subjects: LCSH: Organizational deportment. Classification: LCC HD58.7 .R6 2017 (print) | LCC HD58.7 (ebook) | DDC 658.3––dc23 LC archives serviceable at https://lccn.loc.gov/2016022886 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 ISBN 10: 0-13-452385-7 ISBN 13: 978-0-13-452385-9 A01_ROBB3859_14_SE_FM.indd 4 30/09/16 11:59 AM This book is absorbed to our friends and colleagues in The Organizational Deportment Training Society who, through their training, examination and commitment to the imported order, entertain significantly improved the force of learners to learn and use OB concepts. A01_ROBB3859_14_SE_FM.indd 5 24/09/16 11:56 am BRIEF CONTENTS PART 1 Understanding Yourself and Others Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 1 What Is Organizational Behavior? 1 Diversity in Organizations 17 Attitudes and Job Satisfaction 34 Emotions and Moods 47 Personality and Values 64 PART 2 Making and Implementing Decisions Chapter 6 Chapter 7 Chapter 8 82 Perception and Individual Decision Making Motivation Concepts 100 Motivation: From Concepts to Applications PART 3 Communicating in Groups and Teams 82 120 136 Chapter 9 Foundations of Group Deportment 136 Chapter 10 Understanding Employment Teams 154 Chapter 11 Communication 170 PART 4 Negotiating Power and Politics Chapter 12 Leadership 186 Chapter 13 Power and Politics 207 Chapter 14 Conflict and Negotiation 186 226 PART 5 Leading, Understanding, and Transforming the Organization Order 245 Chapter 15 Foundations of Organization Structure 245 Chapter 16 Organizational Culture 265 Chapter 17 Organizational Change and Stress Management 285 vi A01_ROBB3859_14_SE_FM.indd 6 24/09/16 11:56 am CONTENTS Preface xxii Acknowledgments xxix About the Authors xxx PART 1 Understanding Yourself and Others 1 Chapter 1 WHAT IS ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR? 1 Chapter Warm-up 1 Management and Organizational Deportment 2 Organizational Deportment (OB) Defined 3 Effective versus Successful Managerial Activities 3 Watch It—Herman Miller: Organizational Deportment 4 Complementing Intuition delay Systematic Con-over 4 Big Axioms 5 Disciplines That Contribute to the OB Field 6 Psychology 6 Social Psychology 6 Sociology 7 Anthropology 7 There Are Few Absolutes in OB 7 Challenges and Opportunities for OB 8 Continuing Globalization 8 Workforce Demographics 10 Workforce Diversity 10 Social Media 10 Employee Well-Being at Employment 11 Positive Employment Environment 11 Ethical Deportment 12 Coming Attractions: Developing an OB Model 12 Overview 12 Inputs 13 Processes 13 Outcomes 14 Summary 15 Implications for Managers 15 Personal Inventory Assessments: Multicultural Awareness Scale 16 vii A01_ROBB3859_14_SE_FM.indd 7 24/09/16 11:56 am viii Contents Chapter 2 DIVERSITY IN ORGANIZATIONS 17 Chapter Warm-up 17 Diversity 17 Demographic Characteristics 18 Levels of Diversity 18 Discrimination 19 Stereotype Threat 19 Discrimination in the Workplace 20 Biographical Characteristics 21 Age 21 Sex 22 Race and Ethnicity 23 Disabilities 23 Hidden Disabilities 24 Other Differentiating Characteristics 25 Religion 25 Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity 25 Cultural Identity 27 Watch It—Verizon: Diversity 27 Ability 27 Intellectual Abilities 27 Physical Abilities 29 Implementing Diversity Management Strategies 29 Attracting, Selecting, Developing, and Retaining Diverse Employees 30 Diversity in Groups 31 Diversity Programs 32 Summary 32 Implications for Managers 33 Try It—Simulation: Human Instrument 33 Personal Inventory Assessments: Intercultural Sensitivity Scale 33 Chapter 3 ATTITUDES AND JOB SATISFACTION 34 Chapter Warm-up 34 Attitudes 34 Watch It—Gawker Media: Attitudes and Job Satisfaction Attitudes and Deportment 36 Job Attitudes 37 Job Satisfaction and Job Involvement 37 A01_ROBB3859_14_SE_FM.indd 8 36 24/09/16 11:56 am Contents ix Organizational Commitment 37 Perceived Organizational Aid 37 Employee Engagement 38 Measuring Job Satisfaction 38 Approaches to Measurement 39 Measured Job Satisfaction Levels 39 What Causes Job Satisfaction? 39 Job Conditions 40 Personality 41 Pay 41 Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) 41 Outcomes of Job Satisfaction 42 Job Achievement 42 Organizational Citizenship Deportment (OCB) 42 Customer Satisfaction 42 Life Satisfaction 43 The Impact of Job Dissatisfaction 43 Counterproductive Employment Deportment (CWB) 43 Understanding the Impact 45 Summary 46 Implications for Managers 46 Try It—Simulation: Attitudes & Job Satisfaction 46 Personal Inventory Assessments: Core Self-Evaluation (CSE) Scale 46 Chapter 4 EMOTIONS AND MOODS 47 Chapter Warm-up 47 What Are Emotions and Moods? 47 The Basic Emotions 48 Moral Emotions 49 The Basic Moods: Positive and Negative Affect Experiencing Moods and Emotions 50 The Employment of Emotions 50 Sources of Emotions and Moods 51 Personality 52 Time of Day 52 Day of the Week 52 Weather 52 Stress 54 Sleep 54 A01_ROBB3859_14_SE_FM.indd 9 49 24/09/16 11:56 am x Contents Exercise 54 Age 54 Sex 54 Emotional Labor 55 Controlling Emotional Displays 55 Emotional Dissonance and Mindfulness 56 Affective Events Theory 56 Emotional Intelligence 56 Emotion Regulation 58 Emotion Regulation Influences and Outcomes 58 Emotion Regulation Techniques 58 Ethics of Emotion Regulation 59 Watch It—East Haven Fire Department: Emotions and Moods OB Applications of Emotions and Moods 59 Selection 59 Decision Making 60 Creativity 60 Motivation 60 Leadership 60 Customer Service 61 Job Attitudes 61 Deviant Workplace Behaviors 61 Safety and Injury at Employment 62 59 Summary 62 Implications for Managers 62 Try It—Simulation: Emotions & Moods 63 Personal Inventory Assessments: Emotional Intelligence Assessment 63 Chapter 5 PERSONALITY AND VALUES 64 Chapter Warm-up 64 Personality 64 What Is Personality? 65 Personality Frameworks 66 The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator 66 The Big Five Personality Model 67 How Do the Big Five Traits Predict Deportment at Work? The Dark Triad 69 Other Personality Attributes Relevant to OB 71 Core Self-Evaluation (CSE) 71 A01_ROBB3859_14_SE_FM.indd 10 68 24/09/16 11:56 am Contents xi Self-Monitoring 72 Proactive Personality 72 Personality and Situations 72 Situation Strength Theory 73 Trait Activation Theory 74 Values 75 Watch It—Honest Tea: Ethics–Company Mission and Values 75 Terminal versus Instrumental Values 75 Generational Values 76 Linking an Individual’s Personality and Values to the Workplace 76 Person–Job Fit 76 Person–Organization Fit 77 Other Dimensions of Fit 77 Cultural Values 78 Hofstede’s Frameemployment 78 The GLOBE Frameemployment 79 Comparison of Hofstede’s Frameemployment and the Globe Frameemployment 79 Summary 81 Implications for Managers 81 Personal Inventory Assessments: Personality Style Indicator 81 PART 2 Making and Implementing Decisions 82 Chapter 6 PERCEPTION AND INDIVIDUAL DECISION MAKING 82 Chapter Warm-up 82 What Is Perception? 82 Factors That Influence Perception 83 Watch It—Orpheus Group Casting: Social Perception and Attribution 84 Person Perception: Making Judgments encircling Others 84 Attribution Theory 84 Common Shortcuts in Judging Others 86 The Join among Perception and Individual Decision Making 87 Decision Making in Organizations 87 The Rational Model, Bounded Rationality, and Intuition 87 A01_ROBB3859_14_SE_FM.indd 11 24/09/16 11:56 am xii Contents Common Biases and Errors in Decision Making 89 Influences on Decision Making: Individual Differences and Organizational Constraints 91 Individual Differences 92 Organizational Constraints 93 What encircling Ethics in Decision Making? 93 Three Ethical Decision Criteria 94 Choosing among Criteria 94 Behavioral Ethics 95 Lying 95 Creativity, Creative Decision Making, and Innovation in Organizations 95 Creative Deportment 96 Causes of Creative Deportment 96 Creative Outcomes (Innovation) 98 Summary 98 Implications for Managers 98 Try It—Simulation: Perception & Individual Decision Making 99 Personal Inventory Assessments: How Creative Are You? Chapter 7 Motivation Concepts 99 100 Chapter Warm-up 100 Motivation 100 Watch It—Motivation (TWZ Role Play) 101 Early Theories of Motivation 101 Hierarchy of Needs Theory 101 Two-Factor Theory 102 McClelland’s Theory of Needs 102 Contemporary Theories of Motivation 104 Self-Determination Theory 104 Goal-Setting Theory 105 Other Contemporary Theories of Motivation 108 Self-Efficacy Theory 108 Reinforcement Theory 110 Equity Theory/Organizational Justice 111 Expectancy Theory 115 Job Engagement 116 Integrating Contemporary Theories of Motivation 116 A01_ROBB3859_14_SE_FM.indd 12 30/09/16 11:42 AM Contents xiii Summary 118 Implications for Managers 118 Try It—Simulation: Motivation 118 Personal Inventory Assessments: Employment Motivation Indicator 119 Chapter 8 MOTIVATION: FROM CONCEPTS TO APPLICATIONS 120 Chapter Warm-up 120 Motivating by Job Design: The Job Characteristics Model (JCM) 121 Elements of the JCM 121 Efficacy of the JCM 121 Motivating Potential Score (MPS) 122 Cultural Generalizforce of the JCM 123 Using Job Redesign to Motivate Employees 123 Job Rotation 123 Relational Job Design 124 Using Alternative Employment Arrangements to Motivate Employees 124 Flexdate 125 Job Sharing 126 Telecommuting 127 Using Employee Involvement and Participation (EIP) to Motivate Employees 127 Cultural EIP 128 Forms of Employee Involvement Programs 128 Using Extrinsic Rewards to Motivate Employees 129 What to Pay: Establishing a Pay Structure 129 How to Pay: Rewarding Individual Employees through Variable-Pay Programs 129 Using Benefits to Motivate Employees 133 Using Intrinsic Rewards to Motivate Employees 133 Watch It—ZAPPOS: Motivating Employees through Company Culture 134 Summary 134 Implications for Managers 135 Try It—Simulation: Extrinsic & Intrinsic Motivation 135 Personal Inventory Assessments: Diagnosing the Demand for Team Building 135 A01_ROBB3859_14_SE_FM.indd 13 24/09/16 11:56 am xiv Contents PART 3 Communicating in Groups and Teams Chapter 9 FOUNDATIONS OF GROUP BEHAVIOR 136 136 Chapter Warm-up 136 Groups and Group Identity 137 Social Identity 137 Ingroups and Outgroups 137 Stages of Group Development 138 Watch It—Witness.org: Managing Groups & Teams 138 Group Estate 1: Roles 139 Role Perception 140 Role Expectations 140 Role Conflict 140 Group Estate 2: Norms 140 Norms and Emotions 141 Norms and Conformity 141 Norms and Deportment 142 Positive Norms and Group Outcomes 142 Negative Norms and Group Outcomes 143 Norms and Culture 144 Group Estate 3: Status, and Group Estate 4: Size 144 Group Estate 3: Status 144 Group Estate 4: Size 146 Group Estate 5: Cohesiveness, and Group Property 6: Diversity 146 Group Estate 5: Cohesiveness 147 Group Estate 6: Diversity 147 Group Decision Making 149 Groups versus the Individual 149 Groupthink 150 Groupshift or Group Polarization 151 Group Decision-Making Techniques 151 Summary 152 Implications for Managers 153 Try It—Simulation: Group Deportment 153 Personal Inventory Assessments: Communicating Supportively 153 Chapter 10 UNDERSTANDING WORK TEAMS Chapter Warm-up 154 Why Entertain Teams Become so Popular? A01_ROBB3859_14_SE_FM.indd 14 154 154 24/09/16 11:56 am Contents xv Differences among Groups and Teams 155 Types of Teams 156 Problem-Solving Teams 156 Self-Managed Employment Teams 156 Cross-Functional Teams 157 Virtual Teams 158 Multiteam Systems 158 Watch It—Teams (TWZ Role Play) 159 Creating Potent Teams 159 Team Context: What Factors Determine Whether Teams Are Successful? 160 Team Composition 161 Team Processes 164 Turning Individuals into Team Players 166 Selecting: Hiring Team Players 167 Training: Creating Team Players 167 Rewarding: Providing Incentives to Be a Good Team Player 167 Beware! Teams Aren’t Always the Apology 168 Summary 168 Implications for Managers 168 Try It—Simulation: Teams 169 Personal Inventory Assessments: Team Development Behaviors 169 Chapter 11 COMMUNICATION 170 Chapter Warm-up 170 Communication 171 Functions of Communication 171 The Communication Order 172 Direction of Communication 172 Downward Communication 173 Upward Communication 173 Lateral Communication 173 Formal Small-Group Networks 174 The Grapevine 174 Modes of Communication 175 Oral Communication 175 Written Communication 176 Nonverbal Communication 176 A01_ROBB3859_14_SE_FM.indd 15 24/09/16 11:56 am xvi Contents Choice of Communication Channel 176 Channel Richness 176 Choosing Communication Methods 177 Information Security 178 Persuasive Communication 178 Automatic and Controlled Processing 178 Tailoring the Message 179 Barriers to Potent Communication 180 Filtering 180 Selective Perception 180 Information Overcarry 180 Emotions 181 Language 181 Silence 181 Communication Apprehension 181 Lying 182 Cultural Factors 182 Cultural Barriers 182 Cultural Conquotation 183 A Cultural Guide 183 Watch It—Communication (TWZ Role Play) 184 Summary 184 Implications for Managers 185 Try It—Simulation: Communication 185 Personal Inventory Assessments: Communication Styles PART 4 Negotiating Power and Politics Chapter 12 LEADERSHIP 186 186 Chapter Warm-up 186 Watch It—Leadership (TWZ Role Play) 186 Trait Theories of Leadership 187 Personality Traits and Leadership 187 Emotional Intelligence (EI) and Leadership Behavioral Theories 188 Initiating Structure 188 Consideration 189 Cultural Differences 189 Contingency Theories 189 The Fiedler Model 189 A01_ROBB3859_14_SE_FM.indd 16 185 188 24/09/16 11:56 am Contents xvii Situational Leadership Theory 191 Path–Goal Theory 191 Leader–Participation Model 192 Contemporary Theories of Leadership 192 Leader–Member Exchange (LMX) Theory 192 Charismatic Leadership 194 Transactional and Transformational Leadership 196 Responsible Leadership 199 Authentic Leadership 199 Ethical Leadership 200 Servant Leadership 200 Positive Leadership 201 Trust 201 Mentoring 203 Challenges to Our Understanding of Leadership Leadership as an Attribution 203 Substitutes for an ...
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