Part I: Question 1
Classical school of criminology is the body of knowledge that focuses on reforming criminals and the appropriate punishment to deter crime. This school of thought was founded by Cesare Beccaria in the eighteenth century during the early days of western civilization and enlightenment. This Italian philosopher believed that human nature would play a role in reducing crime. His argument is that human behaviors are intrinsic such that a person will behave in a way that he feels it suits him. All actions are self centered.
This school of thought believed that harsh punishment that were administered to criminal then did not reduce crime and thus advocated for swift punishment and short trial. These scholars advocated for reforms in the justice system in a way that judges would not have a free will to punish criminals but be guided by clear stipulation of crime and the necessary punishment.
Jeremy Bentham believed that an individual has a free will to decide whether to commit a crime of not. It means that; when an individual commits crime he does it deliberates as he makes a rational choice in decision making. A decision to commit a crime is based on an analysis of possible benefits and cost associated with the crime.
The Utilitarianism concept holds to the idea that all personal decisions are well calculated and aimed at bringing a given level of satisfaction to whoever was committing. According to this theory all actions are geared toward a level of satisfaction.