Lab 03: tectonic processes and landforms


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LAB MODULE 13: PLATE TECTONICS

Note: Please associate to the GETTING STARTEDmodule to apprehend how to maneuver through, and how to response the lab questions, in the Google Earth () rudiment.

KEY TERMS

You should apprehend and apprehend the aftercited terms:

 

Continental Drift

Pacific Ring of Fire

Reverse Fault

Earthquakes

Pangaea

Subduction

Hotspots

Plate Convergence

Transfashion Fault

Normal Fault

Plate Divergence

 

Overthrust misdeed

Plate tectonics

 

 

LAB MODULE LEARNING OBJECTIVES

After successfully completing this module, you should be telling to do the aftercited tasks:

·         Explain the scheme of dish tectonics

·         Explain the scheme of continental end

·         Identify and portray marks of dish instigate

·         Identify and portray the three marks of volcanoes

·         Explain the concept of hotspots

·         Compute the scolds of dish instigate

·         Identify and portray the unanalogous marks of misdeeds

INTRODUCTION

This module examines dish tectonics. Topics conceivecontinental end, tectonic plantforms, dish boundaries, misdeeds and hotspots. Timeliness these questions may pretence to be unequal, you accomplish apprehend how they are inherently kindred.The module starts delay immodest start questions, or vignettes, which are endow in the appertaining Google Earth refine. These vignettes conduct-in basic concepts of the interior bring-about of the Earth. Some of the vignettes accept alertnesss, videos, or abrupt declaration that accomplish yield another perspective or visual explication for the question at operative.After balbutiation the vignette and associated links, response the aftercited questions. Please silence that some links effectiveness admit a termliness to download grounded on your Internet expedite.

 

Expandthe INTRODUCTION folder and then cohibit Question 1: Introduction.

 Read Topic 1: Introduction

Question 1:Based on this map, what is one continent in which there are two (or further) dishs?

A.   North America

B.   Europe

C.   Asia

D.   Africa

 Read Topic 2: Continental Drift

Question 2:What was discovered in Antarctica that solidified Wegener’s scheme of continental end?

A.   Snow and ice

B.   Mineral deposits

C.   Tropical insert fossils

D.   Extinct volcanoes

 Read Topic 3: Tectonic Landforms

Question 3:Where do scientists meditate the contiguous elder sagacious accomplish be fashioned?

A.   Gulf of Mexico

B.   Iceland

C.   Australia

D.   East Africa

 Read Topic 4: Human Interaction

Question 4: Based on the condition, which is not a argue why humans are drawn to dish boundaries.

A.   Nice scenery

B.   Geothermal intelligence

C.   Fertile soil

D.   Ore deposits

 Collapse and uncohibit the Introduction doubleer.
GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE

 Expand GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE. Double-click and excellent Tectonic Dish Boundaries and Names to expose the indicates on the world of the elder tectonic dishs.

Millions of humans subsist close the elder tectonic dish boundaries. The immanent dangers of food on or close a dish term conceive earthquakes, volcanoes, and tsunamis. However, these unless hazards do dirty to cow mass from settling in these cities, chiefly if the portion has economic, devout, gregarious or collective consequence.

Expand and excellent Major Cities. Double-click and excellent Question 5. When you gain at your use, furnish the notice to satisfy in the blanks lowerneath. Appropriate the two closest tectonic dishs. Repeat this for Questions 5 to 8.

Question 5: City: San Francisco

Two closest tectonic dishs

A.   Pacific/North America

B.   Pacific/Californian

C.   North American/California

D.   Pacific/Juan de Fuca

Question 6: City: Taipei, Taiwan

Two closest tectonic dishs

A.   Philippine/Taiwan

B.   Taiwan/China

C.   Philippine/China

D.   Eurasian/Philippine

Question 7: City: Jerusalem, Israel

Two closest tectonic dishs

A.   Arabian/Eurasian

B.   Mediterranean/Eurasian

C.   African/Arabian

D.   African/Eurasian

Question 8: City: Karachi, Pakistan

Two closest tectonic dishs

A.   Indian/Eurasian

B.   Arabian/African

C.   Pakistani/Indian

D.   Burmese/Eurasian

 Collapse and uncohibit the GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE doubleer.

 

 

PLATE BOUNDARIES AND MOVEMENTS

In notorious, tectonic dish boundaries are classified as converging, diverging, and transform, termliness tectonic dish marks are classified as either oceanic or continental. The aftercited descriptions of dish boundaries and instigates accomplish succor you response Questions 10 to 23.

Converging Boundaries

When an sagaciousic dish and a continental dish bear (Figure 1), the end is subduction, consequently the sagaciousic dish slides lowerneathneath the continental dish. Mountain ranks of volcanoes are created by magma from the soft sagaciousic dish eminence to (and through) the continental protection. Sagacious sagaciousic encroaches typically correlative the shore.

 

Expand the PLATE BOUNDARIES doubleer and then click Subduction Alertness to purpose an alertness of this mark of bearnce term.

 

 

Figure 1. Oceanic-continental bearnce (USGS).

 

Figure 2. Continental-continental bearnce (USGS).

When two continental dishs bear (Figure 2), epitomizeion and raise supervene at the term to fashion mountain ranks.Continental-continental bearnce mountains are not comprised of volcanoes and thus contrariety the orogeny of mountain ranks performed by sagaciousic-continental bearnce.

When two sagaciousic dishs bear (Figure 3), one subducts lowerneathneath the other and the end is a sagacious sagacious encroach. In some cases, lowerneathneath sea volcanoes fashionat these boundaries. Aggravate pets of years, these sagaciousic-mariterm bearnce boundaries profit volcanoes that gain the exterior and fashion a manacle of islands shaped in an arc.

 

 

Figure 3. Oceanic-mariterm bearnce (USGS).

    

 

Diverging Boundaries

As the indicate implies, diverging boundaries supervene where dishs are melting detached from each other. If the dishs are sagaciousic, the end can be an lowerneathsteep mountain rank which follows the dish boundaries. If the dishs are continental, the primal end is the myth of a dip or rift. Given abundance term, these dips or rifts effectiveness be sagacious, fashioning covet, tight seas.

Transfashion Boundaries

Transfashion boundaries supervene when two dishs instigate horizontally late each other. The term, or fault, among the two dishs can be diverse miles distant. Friction among the two dish boundaries can establish up tectonic strain, which can be freed directly into the Earth’s protection in the fashion of an earthquake.

Expand the Boundaries doubleer, cohibit the Plate Boundaries doubleer, and then double‑click Boundary A.

Based on the descriptions of dish boundaries and instigate yieldd, substantiate Boundaries A through G:

Question 9:Boundary _________

A.   Continental-continental bearnt                 

B.   Continental-mariterm bearnt

C.   Oceanic-Oceanic bearnt                           

D.   Oceanic incongruous

E.   Continental-continental incongruous                             

F.    Transform

Question 10:Why did you appropriate this response?

A.   Red Sea is dowdy consequently two continental dishs are hereafter contemporaneously.

B.   Red Sea dish is subducting lowerneathneath the Arabian Plate

C.   The Arabian and African dishs are melting detached from each other, creating the Red Sea

D.   The African dish is subducting lowerneathneath the Arabian Plate, closing off the Red Sea to the Indian Ocean

 Double‑click Boundary B.

Question 11:Boundary _________

A.   Continental-continental bearnt                 

B.   Continental-mariterm bearnt

C.   Oceanic-Oceanic bearnt                           

D.   Oceanic incongruous

E.   Continental-continental incongruous                             

F.    Transform

Question 12:Why did you appropriate this response?

A.   Himalayas were fashioned by Indian dish riding aggravate the Eurasian dish

B.   Himalayas were fashioned by the Eurasian dish riding aggravate the Indian dish

C.   Himalayas were fashioned by the Indian and Eurasian dishs colliding

D.   Himalayas were fashioned by the Indian and Eurasian dishs melting aloof

 Double‑click Boundary C.

Question 13:Boundary _________

A.   Continental-continental bearnt                 

B.   Continental-mariterm bearnt

C.   Oceanic-Oceanic bearnt                           

D.   Oceanic incongruous

E.   Continental-continental incongruous                             

F.    Transform

 

Question 14:Why did you appropriate this response?

A.   Mid-Atlantic ridge was created by North American and African dishs colliding

B.   Mid-Atlantic ridge was created by South American and African dishs colliding

C.   Mid-Atlantic ridge was created by North American dish subducting lowerneathneath theEurasian dish

D.   Mid-Atlantic ridge was created by North American and Eurasian dishs melting aloof and the South American and African dishs melting aloof.

 Double‑click Boundary D.

Question 15:Boundary _________

A.   Continental-continental bearnt                 

B.   Continental-mariterm bearnt

C.   Oceanic-Oceanic bearnt                           

D.   Oceanic incongruous

E.   Continental-continental incongruous                             

F.    Transform

Question 16:Why did you appropriate this response?

A.   The Pacific and South American Plates are melting aloof, fashioning a sagacious encroach

B.   The Pacific and South American dishs are colliding fashioning the Andes Mountains

C.   The Nazca dish is subducting lowerneathneath the South American dish, fashioning a sagacious encroach

D.   The South American dish is subducting lowerneathneath the Pacific dish, fashioning a sagacious encroach

 

 Double‑click Boundary E.

Question 17:Boundary _________

A.   Continental-continental bearnt                 

B.   Continental-mariterm bearnt

C.   Oceanic-Oceanic bearnt                           

D.   Oceanic incongruous

E.   Continental-continental incongruous                             

F.    Transform

Question 18:Why did you appropriate this response?

A.   The Pacific and North American Plates are melting aloof, fashioning a sagacious encroach

B.   The Pacific and North American dishs are colliding fashioning the Andes Mountains

C.   The Pacific dish is subducting lowerneathneath the North American dish, fashioning a sagacious encroach

D.   The North American dish is subducting lowerneathneath the Pacific dish, fashioning a sagacious encroach

 Double‑click Boundary F.

Question 19:Boundary _________

A.   Continental-continental bearnt                 

B.   Continental-mariterm bearnt

C.   Oceanic-Oceanic bearnt                           

D.   Oceanic incongruous

E.   Continental-continental incongruous                             

F.    Transform

Question 20:Why did you appropriate this response?

A.   The two dishs are colliding, creating a train of lakes in Eastern Africa

B.   The two dishs are melting aloof creating a train of lakes in Eastern Africa

C.   The two dishs are sliding late each other creating a train of lakes in Eastern Africa

D.   The two dishs are colliding and dowdy the lakes in Eastern Africa

 Double‑click Boundary G.

Question 21:Boundary _________

A.   Continental-continental bearnt                 

B.   Continental-mariterm bearnt

C.   Oceanic-Oceanic bearnt                           

D.   Oceanic incongruous

E.   Continental-continental incongruous                             

F.    Transform

 

Question 22:Why did you appropriate this response?

A.   The Pacific and Philippine dishs are melting aloof, fashioning a sagacious encroach

B.   The Pacific and Philippine dishs are colliding fashioning the Andes Mountains

C.   The Pacific dish is subducting lowerneathneath the Philippine dish, fashioning a sagacious encroach

D.   The Philippine dish is subducting lowerneathneath the Philippine isplant manacle, fashioning a sagacious encroach

Collapse and uncohibit the PLATE BOUNDARIES doubleer.

 

 

EARTHQUAKES

When tectonic straines from melting dishs acovet boundaries and misdeed lines grace too sublime, there can be a unexpected free of intelligence which is manifested as an earthquake. The foci (where the earthquake originates) is repeatedly sagacious delayin the Earth’s lithosphere, termliness the epicenter, located vertically aloft the rendezvous, is endow at the Earth’s exterior.

Earthquakes supervene daily, yet we are not regularly telling to affect them. Seismic waves (p and s waves) from the earthquake succor triangulate the precipitation of the epinucleus by way of the Richter flake. The Richter flake, which is grounded on a logarithmic flake, measures the intelligence freed by an earthquake; so, an earthquake measuring 4.0 on the Richter flake frees 10 terms the intelligence as compared to one measuring 3.0.

It is estimated that there are on medium 130,000 earthquakes worlddistant measuring among 3.0 and 3.9 each year (USGS, 2011). The most strong earthquake recitative was in Valdivia, Chile in 1960, measuring 9.5 on the Richter flake. It generated a tsunami that traveled aggravate 10,000 km athwart the Pacific Ocean, affecting Japan and the Philippines delay waves as lofty as 35 feet.

 Expand the EARTHQUAKES folder, undouble the 2011 Earthquakesfolder,and cohibit merely USGS Logo and Legend(Figure 4).

Within this doubleer are the precipitations, heaps (grounded on the Richter flake), and profoundnesss of all recitative earthquakes in 2011 (you effectiveness accept to zoom in or zoom out to see the epicenters).

Double‑click the Magnitude 9 doubleer.

Question 23:Where was the heap of 9 or loftyer recitative in 2011?

A.   Off the shore of California

B.   Off the shore of Chile

C.   Off the shore of Japan

D.   Off the shore of Hawaii

Uncohibit the Magnitude 9 doubleer. Double‑click and excellent the Magnitude 7 doubleer.

Question 24: How sundry earthquakes delay a heap among 7 and 7.9 were recitative in 2011?

A.   19

B.   14

C.   26

D.   33

Question 25: How sundry earthquakes delay a heap among 7 and 7.9and a profoundness of 0-35 km were recitative in 2011?

A.   8

B.   10

C.   12

D.   15

Uncohibit and then recohibit the 2011 Earthquakesfolder.Verify that all boxes are cohibited (from USGS Logo to Magnitude None).

Question 26: Grounded on a visual neglect of the world, which dominion practiced the most earthquakes in 2011? (You effectiveness accept to zoom in or out).

A.   Japan

B.   Chile

C.   Russia

D.   United States

Question 27: Delay i-elation to all earthquakes, most of them are located acovet the perimeter of the Pacific Ocean. What is this area - delay its dissimilar shape of earthquakes - apprehendn as?

A.   Edge of fire

B.   Ring of fire

C.   Pacific tectonic zone

D.   Ring of earthquakes

Delay the2011 Earthquakes excellented, cohibit the PLATE BOUNDARIESfolder.

Question 28:Which of the aftercited portrays the spatial conformity among dish boundaries and earthquake epicenters.

A.   They are rarely endow close each other

B.   They pretence to be randomly distributed

C.   They are repeatedly endow contemporaneously

D.   There is no plain spatial conformity

 Collapse and uncohibit the EARTHQUAKESandPLATE BOUNDARIES folders.

 

 

HOTSPOTS

Expand the HOTSPOTS doubleer and then click Hotspot Animationto purpose an alertness of this mark of bearnce term.

Double‑click and excellentSeamount Chain and Kilauea.

Most scientists appreciate that the Hawaiian Islands and the associated Hawaiian-Emperor Seamount Manacle were created by a hotspot. A hotspot is a motionless precipitation in the asthenosphere where a magma bunch upwells and fashions aseamount (an lowerneathsea volcano). If tectonic courage is enough, the seamount accomplish behove, sever the exterior of the sagacious, and eventually fashion an island.

Although the hotspot dross motionless, the aggravatelying dish continues to instigate, ending in a train of islands, atolls (coral islands delay lagoons), and seamounts that pretence the instigate of the dish aggravate pets of years. Among this manacle, the dish instigate is conspicuous as you instigate detached from the Big Isplant of Hawai’i where the hotspot currently exists. At the end of the seamount manacle is Meiji Guyot, created encircling 82 pet years ago and considered by sundry to be the oldest seamount in the manacle.

As the dispose in the manacle suggests, the Pacific dish has not regularly instigate at the selfselfselfsame scold or in the selfselfselfsame tendency. Researchers meditate that encircling 43 to 50 pet years ago, the Pacific dish progressive tendency and shifted from a northerly tendency to a further westerly one. Currently, the Pacific Dish is melting in a northwest tendency. And termliness the hotspot is currently lowerneathneath Kilauea on the Big Isplant of Hawai’i, it is so fashioning Li’iho Seamount, a new seamount encircling 35 km southeast from the Big Island.

 In the Ttelling of Contents, notorious the Layers pane, and authenticate Borders and Labels is excellented. You effectiveness accept to zoom in to see the labels of the islands.

Question 29: Using the executive instrument, what is the separation in miles from Kilauea to the nucleus of Kauai?_________

A.   ~ 235 miles

B.   ~ 325 miles

C.   ~ 525 miles

D.   ~ 352 miles

Kauai was fashioned encircling 5.1 pet years ago.

Question 30: Using the notice aloft, count the medium scold of expedite (in inches per year, or in/yr) of the dish past the myth of Kauai? (Remember:Convert miles to inches: 63,360 inches = 1 mile). Pretence your result.

A.   235 miles * 63360 inches/mile / 5,100,000 years = 2.92 inches/year

B.   352 miles * 63360 inches/mile / 5,100,000 years = 4.37 inches/year

C.   525 miles * 63360 inches/mile / 5,100,000 years = 6.52 inches/year

D.   325 miles * 63360 inches/mile / 5,100,000 years = 4.04 inches/year

 

Question 31: Using the executive instrument, what is the separation in miles from Kilauea to the nucleus of Maui?

A.   ~90 miles

B.   ~110 miles

C.   ~130 miles

D.   ~150 miles

Maui was created encircling 1.3 pet years ago.

Question 32: Using the notice aloft, count the medium scold of expedite (in inches per year, or in/yr) of the dish past the myth of Maui? (Remember: Convert miles to inches). Pretence your result.

A.   90 miles * 63360 inches/mile / 1,300,000 years = 4.39 inches/year

B.   150 miles * 63360 inches/mile / 1,300,000 years = 2.63 inches/year

C.   130 miles * 63360 inches/mile / 1,300,000years = 3.04 inches/year

D.   110 miles * 63360 inches/mile / 1,300,000 years = 3.56 inches/year

Question 33:Do hotspots supervene merely in the sagacious?Explain why or why not.

A.   Yes, consequently they fashion merely lowerneathneath sagaciousic protection

B.   Yes, consequently there is no token of them lowerneathneath continental protection

C.   No, consequently, there is token of them lowerneathneath continental protection (e.g. Yellowstone)

D.   No, consequently the Andes Mountains in South America are a good-natured-natured specimen of a hotspot

 In the Ttelling of Contents, go to theLayers pane, and uncohibit Borders and Labels.

 Collapse and uncohibit the HOTSPOTS doubleer.

 

 

FAULT TYPES

 Expand the FAULT TYPES folder and then click Fault-Types Alertness to purpose an alertness.

Folding is the way by which shakes epitomize and dissipate. Diverse kinds of geologic bring-abouts are associated delay this way, including anticlines, synclines, aggravateturned double, and aggravatethrust misdeeds.

 Double-click Fly-over: Appalachian Mountains.

 Close the alertness repress panel:

 Double-click and excellent Appalachian Mountains.

This area of the Appalachian Mountains is apprehendn as the Ridge and Dip Province. The geomorphology, or spatial fashion and extrication of the plant, consists of sundry ridges and dips. Anticlines fashion most of the ridges in this area, termliness synclines bring-about up sundry dips. However, aggravate pets of years, an alteration can supervene in which structurally, synclines grace ridges and anticlines grace dips. This is due in disunite to the erosion of softer shake by steep aggravate term. A endant plantfashion in these structurally inverted plantscapes consists of steeply sloped ridges delay shrewd summits apprehendn as hogback ridges, which supervene on each laterality of an anticline dip.

Question 34: Is Portion  an anticline or syncline?

A.   Anticline

B.   Syncline

C.   Hogback ridge

D.   Both a syncline and anticline

Question 35: What is Portion (liclose portion) which is locatedat the low of the Rocky Mountains? ________________

A.   Anticline

B.   Syncline

C.   Hogback ridge

D.   Both a syncline and anticline

 Double-click and excellent Appalachian Mountains.

Many geographers concede immodest elder misdeeds – usual (Figure 5), counterexhibition (Figure 6), aggravatethrust (Figure 7), and strike-slip (Figure 8) misdeeds.

 

Figure 5. Usual Misdeed (Arbogast 2nd Ed.).

 

Figure 6. Counterexhibition Misdeed (Arbogast 2nd Ed.).

 

Figure 7. Overthrust Misdeed (Arbogast 2nd Ed.).

 

Figure 8. Strike-Slip Misdeed (Arbogast 2nd Ed.).

 

In the aftercited questions, response and substantiate these marks of misdeeds. Where there is a train of usual misdeeds, horst and graben can be endow.

Question 36: What is the indicate of the crag visage fashioned by a usual misdeed?

A.   Scarp

B.   Talus

C.   Scree

D.   Slide

Question 37: What is Portion ?:

A.   Horst

B.   Graben

C.   Ridge

D.   Reverse misdeed

Question 38: What is Portion ?:

A.   Horst

B.   Graben

C.   Ridge

D.   Reverse misdeed

Question 39: What misdeed is not associated delay raise?

A.   Normal

B.   Reverse

C.   Overthrust

D.   Strike-slip

Question 40: Are misdeeds poor to plant, or can they supervene lowerneathneath steep as polite? Explain why or why not.

A.   Limited to plant, as there is no token of misdeeding lowerneathneath steep

B.   Limited to plant, as misdeeding is a continental protection phenomenon

C.   Not poor to plant, as misdeeding can supervene lowerneathneath steep

D.   Not poor to plant, as misdeeding requires at lowest one laterality to be sagaciousic.

 

References

USGS. 2011. http://earthquake.usgs.gov/earthquakes/eqarchives/year/eqstats.php. Accessed December 15, 2011.