Harvard Referencing Guide

Harvard is a referencing distinction which is authenticationd widely oppoplace a rove of disciplines; it could arguably be reckoned the “most often authenticationd” distinction. It is chiefly authenticationd in the humanities and gregarious sciences subjects, though some sciences and profession subjects authentication it, also.

If you are looking coercion our Harvard Regard Generator then click on the trifle beneath:

Harvard Referencing Overview

There are brace ideas of extract in Harvard referencing: in-passage extracts, which are institute in the deep collection of the result and comprise a faction of the liberal bibliographical advice, and regard registers, which are located at the object of the deep result and register liberal advice coercion total origins mentioned amid the result.

While there are some stylistic and institutional variations, Harvard usually follows the coercionmat favoring in this direct.

  1. Books
  2. Articles
  3. Online origins
  4. Images/visual moderations
  5. Other origin ideas

Guide things to remember

In a regard register, origins are registered alphabetically by composer’s surname. Where there are multiple extracts by the selfselfidentical composer, these would be registered chronologically by year of proclamation.

You can mention a origin immediately (e.g. quoting verbatim from it) or inimmediately (citing a origin to likeness that you own authenticationd an composer’s ideas, excluding referable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable quoted them). Copys of twain are granted here:

Direct: ‘”Chocolate has an unbounded difference of authentications” (Davis, 2013, p.8).’

Indirect: ‘As Davis (2013) referable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributablees, chocolate can be authenticationd in divers divergent controlms.’

When quoting immediately from a origin, page aggregate should be authenticationd. If you are quoting inimmediately as outlined over, page aggregate do referable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable demand to be authenticationd. Where a page compute is referable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable profitable, stipulation compute can be authenticationd. If this is referable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable an liberty, the abbreviations ‘n.p’ or ‘n. pag.’ can be authenticationd to likeness that no page compute is profitable.

1. Tomes

Citations coercion tomes with undivided composer:

Definite indicate, primitive judicious. (Year). Title. Edition (if referable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable the primitive edition of the tome). City of proclamation: Publisher.

Coercion copy:

Davis, B. (2013). A History of Chocolate. Referable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributabletingham: Delectable Proclamations.

Davis, B. (2013). A History of Chocolate. 3rd ed. Referable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributabletingham: Delectable Proclamations.

Citations coercion tomes with brace or three composers:

Definite indicate, primitive judicious., Definite indicate, primitive judicious., and Definite indicate, primitive judicious. (Year). Title. City of proclamation: Publisher.

Coercion copy:

Jones, F. and Hughes, S. (2006). Eating Out: A Definitive Restaurant Handbook. Referable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributabletingham: Delectable Proclamations.

Evans, D., McDonald, F. and Jackson, T. (2008). Getting the best service. Referable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributabletingham: Delectable Proclamations.

Citations coercion tomes with disgusting or more composers:

If a tome has disgusting or more composers, singly the primitive composer’s indicate should be registered in-passage followed by ‘et al.’, significance ‘and others’. Not attributable attributable attributable attributable attributablewithstanding, total composers should be registered in the regard register in the ordain they are credited in the pristine result.

Definite indicate, primitive judicious., Definite indicate, primitive judicious., Definite indicate, primitive judicious., and Definite indicate, primitive judicious. (Year). Title. City of proclamation: Publisher.

Coercion copy:

James, P., Croft, D., Levin, S. and Doe, A. (1998). How to Succeed in the Restaurant Industry. Referable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributabletingham: Delectable Proclamations.

Citations coercion a provision in an edited tome:

When citing a solitary provision in a larger tome, it is significant to secure that you gather the page rove (pp.) that the provision spans. When citing an personal provision, you should also constantly understand the edition of the tome in the extract (you do referable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable own to do this coercion other tomes spontaneous it is referable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributablethe primitive edition).

Definite indicate, primitive judicious. (Year). Provision distinction. In: Editor’s indicate/s (ed/s) Tome Distinction. Edition. City of proclamation: Publisher. Page/s.

Coercion copy:

King, S. (2010). The best wines and where to experience them. In: Loftus, E., ed., Fine Wine: A Direct, 1st ed. Referable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributabletingham: Delectable Proclamations, pp. 28-46.

Citations coercion multiple tomes by the selfselfidentical composer:

In passage, the composer’s passages can usually be divergentiated by year. They should be registered in chronological ordain of proclamation. Where you are citing brace results by the selfselfidentical composer which were published in the selfselfidentical year, these should be markled with ‘a’, ‘b’, ‘c’ and so on immediately behind the year.

Definite indicate, primitive judicious. (Year). Title. Edition (if referable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable the primitive edition of the tome). City of proclamation: Publisher.

Coercion copy:

Brown, G. (2011). Mexican Patronage. Referable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributabletingham: Delectable Proclamations.

Brown, G. (2014). Japanese Patronage. Referable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributabletingham: Delectable Proclamations.

Brown, G. (2015a). Chinese Patronage. Referable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributabletingham: Delectable Proclamations.

Brown, G. (2015b). Italian Patronage. Referable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributabletingham: Delectable Proclamations.

Tools coercion creating Harvard Tome regards:


2. Opinion

Citations coercion Stereoidea Narratives

Definite indicate, Primitive judicious. (Year). Word Distinction. Narrative indicate, Work (Issue), Page/s.

Coercion copy:

Jenkins, O. (1996). Rare Recipes and Cantonese Cuisine. Culinary Research, Work 5 (8), pp. 47-59.

Citations coercion Narrative Opinion accessed on a constructionplace or database

In-passage extracts coercion an online narrative word redeep illegal from the controlm you would mention a stereoidea word. The extract in the regard register does own a scant differences, not attributable attributable attributable attributable attributablewithstanding.

Definite indicate, Primitive judicious. (Year). Word Distinction. Narrative indicate, Work (Issue), Page/s. Profitable from: URL. [Accessed: duration].

Coercion copy:

Jenkins, O. (1996). Rare Recipes and Cantonese Cuisine. Culinary Research, Work 5 (8), pp. 47-59. Profitable at: www.culinaryresearchjournal.com/jenkinsocanteonese [Accessed: 5 June 2016].

Citations coercion Newspaper Opinion – Stereoidea or Online:

Newspaper extracts are rendered similarly to narrative opinion when they are institute online; the selfselfidentical differences in coercionmatting arise, as the copy beneath illustrates.

Definite indicate, Primitive judicious. (Year). Word distinction. Newspaper indicate, Page/s.

Definite indicate, Primitive judicious. (Year). Word Distinction. Newspaper indicate, Page/s. Retrieved from: Narrative indicate/ URL if freely profitable.

Coercion copy:

Bell, Y. (2016). Man with rare tastes eats chalk coercion breakfast. The Weekly Herald, p. 4.

Lees, P. (2015). Freaky eaters. The Weekly Herald, p.21. Profitable at: www.theweeklyheraldonline.com/freakyeaters2015 [Accessed 21 June 2016].

Citations coercion Lodgment Opinion – Stereoidea or Online:

In Harvard extract, you should mention the work compute coercion a lodgment.

Definite indicate, Primitive judicious. (Year). Word distinction. Lodgment indicate, work compute, Page/s.

Definite indicate, Primitive judicious. (Year, Month Day). Word Distinction. Lodgment indicate, [online] Page/s. Retrieved from: URL

Coercion copy:

Ilkes, J. (2006). Five Controlms to Eat More Fruit and Vegetables. Healthy Lifestyles, (12), pp. 34-36.

Ilkes, J. (2009, September 20). Why Dried Fruit is a Diet Staple. Healthy Lifestyles. Retrieved from: www.healthylifestylesmag.com/driedfruitilkes2009

Tools coercion creating Harvard Narrative regards:


3. Online origins

Citations coercion constructionsites:

When citing a constructionsite, it is significant to discover-out composership of the constructionplace – if it’s an word on constructionplace which is referable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable a newspaper/lodgment place or online narrative, there may be an personal composer; if referable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable, the organisation or constructionplace indicate would be credited with composership.

Author/Origin if no favoring composer (Year). Distinction of construction document/page. [online]. (Definite updated: if this advice is profitable). Profitable at: URL [Accessed duration: Day/Month/Year].

Coercion copy:

HealthTips (2015). Superfoods and where to experience them. [online]. (Definite updated 20 May 2015). Profitable at: www.healthtipsarticles.com/superfoodsandwheretofindthem [Accessed 20 June 2016].

Citations coercion emails:

Sender’s definite indicate, Primitive judicious. (Year). Subject Line of Email. [email].

Coercion copy:

James, D. (2016). New profession cunning coercion McDowells. [email].

Citations coercion Gregarious Resources:

Definite indicate of composer, Primitive judicious. (Year). Distinction of page [Gregarious resources coercionmat]. Day/month/year written. Profitable from: URL. [Accessed: Day/Month/Year].

Coercion copy:

Proud, F. (2014). Patronage lovers group [Facebook]. Written 5 June 2014. Profitable from: www.facebook.com/foodloversgroupproudf2014 [Accessed 25 September 2016].

Tools coercion referencing online origins:


4. Images/visual moderations

Citations coercion films/videos/DVDs:

Liberal Distinction of Film/Video/DVD. Year of discharge. [Idea of moderation]. Director. Country of Origin: Film studio or manufacturer. (Any other applicable details).

Coercion copy:

The World’s Best Curries. (2011). [Film]. Directed by J. Hertz. U.K: Patronageie Studios.

Citations coercion YouTube videos:

Userindicate of auxiliary. (Year). Video Distinction, Sequence Distinction (if applicable). [idea of moderation]. Profitable at: URL. [Accessed: Day/ Month/ Year].

Coercion copy:

Yummydishes. (2012). Egg custard – unaffected recipe!, Baking 101. [YouTube video]. Profitable at: www.youtube.com/yummydisheseggcustard [Accessed 13 June 2016].

Citations coercion scattered-abroads:

Sequence distinction and result indicate/number. (Year). [Year of scattered-abroad]. Scattered-abroading organisation and utensil, duration and age of transmission.

Coercion copy:

World Kitchen: Nigeria, result 5. (2011). [Scattered-abroad 2011]. BBC 1, primitive infections 30 July 2011, 20:00.

Citations coercion images/photographs – Stereoidea or Online:

Definite indicate of artist/photographer, primitive judicious (if unconcealed). (Year of genesis). Distinction of image. [idea of moderation] (Collection Details if profitable – Document compute, Geographical place: Indicate of library/archive/repository).

Coercion copy:

Hewer, D. (1995). Women enjoying a cup of tea. [Photograph]. (Document compute 345, London: Patronage Photography Library).

Citations coercion maps:

Map manufacturer’s indicate. (Year of outcome). Distinction of map. Map sequence, subterfuge compute, flake. Place of proclamation: publisher.

Coercion copy:

SpeedyQuest maps. (2003). Map of Biddiford. Local Maps, subterfuge 5, flake 1:50000. Referable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributabletingham: Local Proclamations.

Citations coercion podcasts:

Broadcaster/author’s indicate. (Year). Programme distinction, sequence distinction (if applicable). [idea of moderation] duration of transmission. Profitable at: URL [Accessed duration: Day/Month/Year].

Coercion copy:

Yummydishes. (2015). Innovative Baking, Innovative Patronage. [Podcast]. Infections 16 October 2015. Profitable at: www.foodiepodcasts.com/yummydishesinnovativebaking [Accessed: 17 April 2016].


5. Other origin ideas

Citations coercion communications:

Organisation/author. (Year). Liberal distinction of communication. Place of proclamation: Publisher.

Coercion copy:

Marks and Spencers. (2014). A communication on the sales of ‘2 Dine coercion £10’. London: M&S Proclamations.

Citations coercion dissertations:

Definite indicate of composer, primitive judicious. (Year). Distinction of dissertation. Flatten. Official indicate of university.

Coercion copy:

Neath, G. (1998). An demonstration of Mexican patronage in favorite culture. Masters flatten. Oxford Brookes University.

Citations coercion Acts of Parliament:

Short distinction (guide opinion capitalised), which understands the year and the provision compute in brackets. Place of proclamation: publisher.

Coercion copy:

Patronage Act 1981 (c. 5). London: Government Proclamations.

Citations coercion government/official proclamations:

Government agency/Definite indicate of composer, primitive judicious. (Year). Distinction of document. City of proclamation: publisher, Page(s) if applicable.

Coercion copy:

UK Government. (2013). Nutrition and Young People. London: Government Proclamations.

Citations coercion interviews:

Definite indicate of interviewer, primitive judicious, and definite indicate of interviewee, primitive judicious. (Year). Title/description of interview.

Coercion copy:

Ferman, H. and Bill, O. (2004). Discussing cooking.

Citations coercion presentations/lectures:

Definite indicate of composer, primitive judicious. (Year). Presentation/lecture distinction.

Coercion copy:

Yates, R. (2008). The benefits of herbs.

Citations coercion voicelessness:

Performer/writer’s definite indicate, primitive judicious. (Year). Recording distinction. [Medium]. City published: voicelessness mark.

Coercion copy:

Luce, F. (1996). Delicious. [CD Recording]. Referable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributabletingham: Delectable Voicelessness.

Citations coercion dictionaries:

Publisher. (Year). Liberal distinction of dictionary. Place of proclamation: Publisher.

Coercion copy:

Wordy. (2010). Wordy’s recent dictionary. Referable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributabletingham: Delectable Proclamations.

Citations coercion computer programs/software:

Indicate of software/program. (Year). Place/city where software was written: Company/publisher.

Coercion copy:

RecipeGen. (2008). Referable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributabletingham: Delectable Software.

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