Chapter 10: Emotional DevelopmentQUESTION 11. Which of the following statements about research on emotions is true? The relationship between emotion and cognition is bidirectional. Emotions are unrelated to either attention or memory. Older children express their emotions more freely and openly than younger children. It is almost impossible to control one s own emotional expressions. 5 points QUESTION 21. Depressed mothers generally use consistent discipline techniques. engage in emotionally positive, responsive caregiving. rarely respond favorably to antidepressant medication. view their children more negatively than independent observers do. 5 points QUESTION 31. Erica has confidence in her own ability to control events in her surroundings. Erica has developed a sense of self-efficacy. emotional self-regulation. joint attention. effortful control. 5 points QUESTION 41. __________ are universal in humans and other primates and have a long evolutionary history of promoting survival. Separation and stranger anxiety Feelings of pride and envy Basic emotions Feelings of guilt and shame5 points QUESTION 51. In infants, expressions of _______ are less common than expressions of __________. fear, sadness happiness, sadness sadness, anger anger, shame5 points QUESTION 61. Joshua, who is a friendly baby, begins showing signs of fear at about 8 months whenever an unfamiliar person enters the room. Joshua is exhibiting stranger anxiety. insecure attachment. separation anxiety. avoidant attachment. 5 points QUESTION 71. Which of the following is a self-conscious emotion? guilt anger fear happiness5 points QUESTION 81. Preschoolers are able to recognize that people can experience more than one emotion at a time. pick up strategies for regulating emotions by watching adults handle their own feelings. give coherent explanations of emotions that emphasize internal states. consider conflicting cues when explaining the emotions of others. 5 points QUESTION 91. When alone, Kajsa abbreviates her emotional expressions, representing them internally. She reserves the full performance of emotional expressions for communicating with others. Kajsa is probably between the ages of 12 and 18 months. 2 and 3 years. 4 and 5 years. 6 and 8 years. 5 points QUESTION 101. Some researchers claim that young babies respond in kind to others emotions through a built-in, automatic process of scaffolding. effortful control. social referencing. emotional contagion. 5 points QUESTION 111. Preschoolers whose parents _____________ are better able to judge others emotions when later tested. explicitly teach them about diverse emotions have trouble regulating their own emotions discourage sibling disputes stifle emotional displays5 points QUESTION 121. Beginning in the preschool years, _________ is an important motivator of altruistic behavior. guilt anxiety empathy fear5 points QUESTION 131. Between the ages of 1 and 2 years, children detect emotions by matching the caregiver s feeling tone in face-to-face communication. begin to engage in social referencing. begin to appreciate that others emotional reactions may differ from their own. can reconcile conflicting cues when explaining others emotions. 5 points QUESTION 141. Maurizio is inactive, shows mild, low-key reactions to environmental stimuli, is negative in mood, and adjusts slowly to new experiences. According to Thomas and Chess, Maurizio is a(n) __________ child. easy disorganized difficult slow-to-warm-up5 points QUESTION 151. In which of Thomas and Chess s dimensions of temperament is the energy level of response, such as laughing, crying, talking, or gross-motor activity, measured? threshold of responsiveness adaptability intensity of reaction approach/withdrawal5 points QUESTION 161. In the first few weeks of life, the _________ of shy children are consistently _________ than those of sociable children. blood pressure levels, lower heart rates, higher cortisol levels, lower body temperatures, higher5 points QUESTION 171. Because Alice s inhibited disposition interfered with learning and getting along with others, Alice s mother gently but consistently counteracted Alice s maladaptive style. Alice s mother demonstrates emotion-centered coping. effortful control. goodness of fit. a nonshared environment. 5 points QUESTION 181. In John Bowlby s preattachment phase, infants respond differently to a familiar caregiver than to a stranger. babies do not mind being left with an unfamiliar adult. babies display separation anxiety. children negotiate with the caregiver, using requests and persuasion to alter their goals. 5 points QUESTION 191. Baby Wesley uses his nanny as a secure base from which to explore. Wesley is in Bowlby s ____________ phase. preattachment reciprocal relationship attachment-in-the-making clear-cut attachment5 points QUESTION 201. One-year-old Lamar stays close to his mother, fails to explore, and is distressed when she leaves the room. Upon his mother’s return, Lamar clings to her with angry behavior, crying, and screaming despite her efforts to comfort him. Lamar is demonstrating ________ attachment. disorganized/disoriented resistant avoidant secure5 points QUESTION 211. Compared with the Strange Situation, the Attachment Q-Sort is less suitable for preschool children than infants. fails to capture the complexity of the parent child relationship. is less time consuming. taps a wider array of attachment-related behaviors. 5 points QUESTION 221. When considering cultural variations in attachment development, which of the following statements is true? The secure pattern is the most common attachment quality in all societies studied. Infants in Israeli kibbutzim frequently show avoidant attachment. Japanese infants rarely show resistant attachment. German infants tend to be more securely attached than American babies. 5 points QUESTION 231. Parents with _____________ internal working models talk about their childhood experiences with highly charged emotion, sometimes expressing anger toward their parents. unresolved dismissing autonomous/secure preoccupied5 points QUESTION 241. Which of the following statements regarding the Aka hunters and gatherers of Central Africa is true? Aka fathers rarely pick up, cuddle, or play with their babies. The bond between Aka husband and wife is unusually cooperative and leads to loving interaction between the father and the children. Aka fathers spend little time in physical proximity to their babies. Marital dissatisfaction in the Aka culture is associated with sensitive paternal care. 5 points QUESTION 251. In a large study by the U. S. National Institute of Child Health and Development, part-time maternal employment during the baby s first year was associated with defiance and aggression. lower social skills. insecure attachment in the Strange Situation. greater maternal sensitivity.