Question 1.1. which of the following accurately describes the so-far

Question 1.1. Which of the following accurately describes the so-far accepted scientific theory explaining the original population of North America, as well as the new alternative theory based on newly discovered evidence? (Points : 4)

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        The discovery of Folsom (Clovis) arrowheads and spear points in the Southwest and throughout the West in the early 1900s, similar in material and style to those discovered much earlier in Siberia, led to a theory that Asiatic hunter-gatherers of the Paleolithic Period migrated across a land bridge (Beringia) that linked Sibera with Alaska during the last millennia of the Ice Age, around approximately 15,000 BCE.  Art and artifacts collected in Central and South America have led some archeologists to theorize that Paleolithic seafarers from South Asia migrated across the South Pacific through Polynesia toward North and South America approximately 5,000 years earlier.  These people are referred to as the Solutrean People.
      
  The discovery of Folsom (Clovis) arrowheads and spear points in the Southwest and throughout the West in the early 1900s, similar in material and style to those discovered much earlier in Central Africa, led to a theory that African hunter-gatherers of the Paleolithic Period migrated by sea across the Atlantic Ocean during the last millennia of the Ice Age, around approximately 15,000 BCE.  Art and artifacts collected in Central and South America have led some archeologists to theorize that Paleolithic seafarers from South Asia migrated across the South Pacific through Polynesia toward North and South America approximately 5,000 years earlier.  These people are referred to as the Solutrean People.
      
  The discovery of Solutrean arrowheads and spear points at Cahokia near present-day St. Louis, Missouri led to a theory that Neolithic seafarers migrated across the Atlantic Ocean from Europe around approximately 20,000 BCE.  Recently discovered evidence casts doubt on the dating of those artifacts, which may possibly be Clovis points dating them at no earlier than 10,000 BCE.
      
  The discovery of Folsom (Clovis) arrowheads and spear points in the Southwest and throughout the West in the early 1900s, similar in material and style to those discovered much earlier in Siberia, led to a theory that Asiatic hunter-gatherers of the Paleolithic Period migrated across a land bridge (Beringia) that linked Sibera with Alaska during the last millennia of the Ice Age, around approximately 15,000-10,000 BCE.  Cruder arrowheads and spear points recently discovered in eastern North America have led some archeologists to theorize that Paleolithic seafarers from Southwestern Europe migrated across the North Atlantic to North America approximately 5,000 years earlier.  These people are referred to as the Solutrean People.
      
  None of the above describes either theory.

 

Question 2.2. When did Archaic hunter-gatherers of the Eastern Woodlands begin to develop agriculture?(Points : 4)

        Approx. 6000-4000 BCE.
      
  Approx. 700-800 CE.
      
  Approx. 6000-4500 BCE.
      
  Approx. 1000-1200 CE.
      
  Approx. 4000-2500 BCE.

 

Question 3.3. Which of the following were among the first American cultures to establish themselves between 10,000 BCE and 1000 CE? (Points : 4)

        Hopewell, Solutrean, Hohokam, Chumash, Anasazi, Adena.
      
  Adena, Anasazi, Chumash, Hohokam, Hopewell, Mogollon.
      
  Solutrean, Hopewell, Anasazi, Mogollon, Chumash.
      
  Anasazi, Chumash, Hopewell, Mogollon, Solutrean.
      
  Adena, Chumash, Hopewell, Mogollon, Solutrean.

 

Question 4.4. Using the Map 1.3 in The American Promise, match the following tribes with their correct geographical regions.
(Points : 4) 

 

Potential Matches:

1 : Eastern Woodlands (OH, KY)

2 : Eastern Woodlands (NC, TN, GA)

3 : Eastern Woodlands (NY)

4 : Great Plains

5 : Great Basin

6 : Southwest

7 : Northwest Coast

 

    Answer

      : Cherokee

      : Chinook

      : Pueblos

      : Sioux

      : Iroquois Confederacy

      : Paiute

      : Shawnee

 

Question 5.5. In which of the major culture areas of North America did the inhabitants rely upon hunting deer for meat, gathered edible plants, seeds, and nuts and acorns, building semi-permanent settlements along major rivers and lakes? (Points : 4)

        The Eastern Woodlands
      
  The Great Basin
      
  The Great Plains
      
  The Desert Southwest
      
  The Arctic

 

Question 6.6. Why is Ramon Pane` probably not a reliable source of information about the Taino religion?(Points : 4)

        Pane` was a Spaniard and, since the Spaniards were unfamiliar with any American Indian peoples, could not know how to interpret the Taino stories without some prior experience with them.
      
  Pane` and the other Spaniards were absolutely convinced of their racial and cultural superiority to the Tainos, and would not have treated the story with any respect, since the Tainos’ religion was considered “pagan.”
      
  Whenever any information is translated from one language to another, much of its spirit and deeper meaning is lost.  In any case, it is doubtful that Pane` was able to become very fluent in Taino, since the Spaniards preferred to kidnap native youths for transportation to Spain, where they would learn Spanish through immersion and then be used as translators.
      
  All of the above.
      
  The first and second answers together.
      
  The second and third answers together.

 

Question 7.7. Which of the following American Indian origin stories features an argument between the twins Othagwenda and Djuskaha, who disagreed within their mother’s womb as to the proper means by which they should exit her to be born, as well as who should go first?  Why should we be very careful in evaluating American Indian myths and legends? (Points : 4)

        The Book of Genesis in the Old Testament.  There is no need for particular care in evaluating American Indian myths and legends, as those who wrote them down did so as accurately and faithfully as possible.
      
  The Taino origin story. The similarity between the idea of a group of brothers scattered from a paradise resembles the story of the expulsion of Adam and Eve from Eden in the Book of Genesis, suggesting that the Taino may have been influenced by Christian missionaries and their story altered as a result.
      
  Aristotle’s The Politics.  There is no need for particular care in evaluating American Indian myths and legends, as those who wrote them down did so as accurately and faithfully as possible.
      
  The Book of Genesis in the Old Testament.  The similarity between the idea of a good twin and an evil twin closely resembles the story of Cain and Abel in Genesis, suggesting that Christian missionaries may have been influenced by the Seneca and their story altered as a result.
      
  The Seneca narrative about “The Woman Who Fell from the Sky.”  Nearly all American Indian cultures had not developed literacy and were thus oral cultures, meaning that all written accounts of Indian myths and legends were written by whites.  The similarity between the idea of a good twin and an evil twin closely resembles the story of Cain and Abel in Genesis, suggesting that the Seneca may have been influenced by Christian missionaries and their story altered as a result.

 

Question 8.8. What did Aristotle mean when he asserted that certain people are “natural slaves”? (Points : 4)

        That by virtue of skin color, darker peoples are far better suited to menial labor, particularly agricultural labor, and thus dark-skinned peoples are “natural slaves.”
      
  That just as some animals are superior to others, so also is it with human beings.  Some animals are easy to tame and others irrevocably wild, and so also there are relatively docile people who are “natural slaves” designed to be subjugated.
      
  That any soldiers who are captured on the battlefield were taken as a result of some defect in their character that renders them “natural slaves.”  Consequently, prisoners of war–regardless of whether the war was just or not–are ideal slaves.
      
  The first and second answers together.
      
  The second and third answers together.
      
  All three answers are correct.

 

Question 9.9. How did conditions in fifteenth-century western Europe lead to the “discovery” of the Americas? (Points : 4)

        The late medieval and Renaissance periods saw the consolidation of authority by “New Monarchs” who subordinated local nobles, recruited armies funded by national taxation, nationalized their economies, and created effective national justice systems.
      
  Ancient technological knowledge preserved and expanded upon by Muslim scholars began to be studied by European scholars in the universities, and this knowledge was applied to increase western Europe’s ability to venture westward across the Atlantic Ocean.
      
  Sustained economic contacts with the eastern Mediterranean and Asia led to a desire to find a shorter ocean route to India and “Cathay” (China) via the Atlantic Ocean, without undertaking the arduous and more expensive land route across Eurasia, or the equally difficult and costly sea route around Africa.
      
  All of the above.
      
  None of the above.

 

Question 10.10. Once Europeans began exploring and colonizing the Americas in the sixteenth century, how did the Indians initially interact with the newcomers? (Points : 4)

        The Indians were immediately hostile, suspecting that the newcomers were in fact invaders bent either upon their subjugation or their destruction.  Battles broke out on the beaches, in which the Indians were routinely defeated.
      
  The Indians believed the Europeans to be incarnations of their gods, and unequivocally submitted to them in every respect, volunteering to be their conquerors’ slaves.
      
  The Indians warily welcomed the newcomers as potential trading partners and military allies.
      
  The Indians refused to have any contact with the Europeans, hiding in the forests and mountains, thereby giving the Europeans the impression that the land was unoccupied and open for settlement.
      
  None of the above.

 

Question 11.11. Which of the following is an accurate definition of the Columbian Exchange? (Points : 4)

        The Columbian Exchange was an Indian commodities market at the ceremonial center of Cahokia.  Constructed by the Mississippian cultures between 900 and 1000 CE, people from throughout North America traveled there to participate in annual trade fairs.
      
  The Columbian Exchange was the process by which European ideas, technology, diseases, and plants and animals irrevocably changed the American environment even as American diseases, plants, and animals changed the Europeans who emigrated to the “New World,” and eventually changed Europe, as well.
      
  The Columbian Exchange refers to the knives, copper and iron cooking wares, tools, utensils, and clothing that Christopher Columbus traded to the Tainos in exchange for items of native manufacture, fruits and vegetables, and objets d’art.
      
  The Columbian Exchange was a major Portuguese trading center at Biafra on the West African coast, where the first slaves were purchased for transportation to Brazilian sugar plantations.
      
  The Columbian Exchange refers only to the introduction of European diseases to which the Indians had no immunities, such as smallpox and tuberculosis, and the introduction of American diseases to the European colonizers, such as syphilis.  European diseases wreaked havoc on Indian populations, while American diseases were not as devastating to the newcomers.

 

Question 12.12. How were the Spanish able to conquer the Aztecs and the Incas so easily? (Points : 4)

        The Spanish enjoyed an overwhelming technological advantage over the Indians, whose bows and arrows, spears, and wooden armor were no match for the Spaniards’ steel swords and armor, and firearms.
      
  The Spaniards and the Mexica, for example, held different beliefs about what war is and how it must be waged.  The Mexica fought to impose their tribute system on others and to take captives for sacrifice, their opponents made to know the unacceptable cost of opposing them.  The Spaniards–like other Europeans–sought to destroy an enemy’s ability to fight and therefore aimed to achieve total victory by destroying an enemy force.
      
  European diseases had already begun their horrendous work before Cortes and Pizarro ever landed in the “New World,” thus weakening the natives’ ability to field enough soldiers to oppose the Spaniards.
      
  The Spaniards cultivated alliances with neighboring Indian tribes that had been subjugated by the Aztecs and the Incas, thus increasing their numbers and likelihood of victory.
      
  All of the above.

 

Question 13.13. What was the substance of the Requerimiento, which Spanish priests read to the inhabitants of every Indian village the Conquistadors approached? (Points : 4)

        That the Indians were subject to the Spanish crown and the Roman Catholic Church, and thus should submit to being Spanish subjects and Catholic Christians, otherwise they would be destroyed, and the fault would be theirs, not the Spaniards’.
      
  That the Conquistadors and encomienderos were to treat the Indians “with love and respect,” and not to enslave or slaughter them on pain of excommunication from the Church and the administration of the death penalty.
      
  That the Conquistadors were to do all in their power to convert the natives to Christianity rather than focus upon amassing personal fortunes off the backs of Indian slaves.
      
  That the Indians were to live unmolested so long as they acknowledged local authority and obeyed Spanish laws.
      
  None of the above describes the Requerimiento.

 

Question 14.14. Which of the following statements below accurately describes the beginnings of the Protestant Reformation? (Points : 4)

        In 1517 Pope Gregory IX moved to eliminate corruption in the Catholic Church by ending the sale of Indulgences, drastically lowering papal tithes, and restoring treasure taken from Muslim lands during the Crusades.  He liquidated much of the Church’s monetary holdings and distributed it to the peasant and artisan classes, and disengaged the Vatican from European politics.
      
  In 1490 Girolamo Savonarola began a series of lectures expounding Scripture to his fellow friars, at which he severely criticized the Church’s vast wealth and political power, which resulted in a campaign of internal reform that was ruthlessly suppressed by the Church’s highest-ranking officials.  His work was taken up by John Wycliffe in England, but he too was burned at the stake for his efforts.
      
  A grassroots movement expressing outrage at the Church’s excesses was organized by Jan Van Leyden in 1528, who with a vast peasant army surrounded the Vatican complex inRome to force changes in Church organization and government.  Although the peasant army was routed by a multinational force, the ideas espoused by Van Leyden resulted in the creation of Protestantism.
      
 

In 1536 an English monk, John Wycliffe, mobilized the peasantry against the wealth and power of the Church, and convinced the Tudor monarchs that the Church had no scriptural warrant to interfere in secular government.  He later published his opinions in The Institutes of the Christian Religion, which resulted in schismatic movements throughout central and western Europe that were opposed by the Catholic Counter-Reformation.


      
  In 1517 Martin Luther, an obscure German priest, posted a list of grievances against the corruption and abusive excesses of the Church to the door of his chapel in Wittenburg.  Although he only intended to spark a debate, he unleashed a firestorm of repressed popular resentment that encouraged Luther to formulate doctrines such as the priesthood of all believers, the printing of Bibles and administration of the liturgy in the vernacular instead of Latin, and the elimination of all clerical offices above that of priest.  His work was continued by John Calvin in the 1530s and ‘40s as the Church responded with a ruthless Counter-Reformation.

 

Question 15.15. What motivated the French, Dutch, and English to embark on New World exploration and colonization in the late sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries? (Points : 4)

        National prestige, and a desire to displace Spain as the most powerful nation in the western hemisphere.
      
  A desire to tap into sources of wealth that had made Spain the wealthiest nation in the western hemisphere.
      
  Religious competition between Catholics and Protestants to convert Indians to Christianity.
      
  All of the above.
      
  None of the above.

 

Question 16.16. Which of the following explains the massive population loss American Indians suffered in the centuries following first contact with the Europeans? (Points : 4)

        A.  Disease to which the natives had no immunity, such as smallpox, influenza, and tuberculosis.
      
  B.  Warfare with the colonizers, whose technological superiority the Indians were unable to resist before they began to acquire and learn to use firearms.
      
  C.  Deliberate campaigns of extermination independently perpetrated by the Spanish, French, and English in order to clear the land of human obstacles to colonization.
      
  A and B together.
      
  B and C together.
      
  A and C together

 

Question 17.17. Using Capt. John Smith’s Powhatan glossary on p. 66 of The American Promise, how would you explain that you are hungry? (Points : 4)

        Spanghtynere keragh werowance mawmarinough kekate wawghpeyaquangh.
      
  Quiyougheosoughs.
      
  Mowchick wayawgh tawgh noeragh kaqueremecher.
      
  Casacunnakack, peya quagh acquintan uttasantasough.
      
  Vittapitchewayne anpechitchs nehawper Werowacomoco.

 

Question 18.18. Which of the following statements below accurately describes the early colonization dynamics of Virginia, which is indicative for all of the Plantation Colonies? (Points : 4)

        Virginia was settled by groups of families, mainly of mixed middle- and lower-class origins seeking religious freedom, and hoping to build “godly communities” in a “howling wilderness.”  In some cases entire villages and communities transplanted from England toVirginia, which meant that patterns of living in England were replicated in Virginia.  The colonists, consequently, did not suffer a long period of privation or “seasoning” that affected other colonists in other parts of America.  Settlement patterns tended to be relatively concentrated, as towns and emergent cities—centered on the church and village greens—peppered the landscape.  A fairly even sex ratio meant that natural population growth steadily increased after the first several years of Jamestown’s establishment.  Relations with the local Indian tribes tended to be cordial, though strained.
      
  Groups of families, mainly of mixed middle- and lower-class origins, ventured to Virginiain pursuit of religious freedom, and hoping to build “godly communities” in a “howling wilderness.”  In some cases entire villages and communities transplanted from England toVirginia, which meant that patterns of living in England were replicated in Virginia.  Apart from the gentleman leaders, who expected the bulk of the colonists to do the manual labor, the early colonists were mostly unskilled laborers accustomed to a labor system in England where work was shared and thus left many idle until their “turns” came.  Jamestown was not built far enough up the James River, where the water flowed faster and was healthy to drink.  Instead, the James—particularly in summer—trapped the colonists sewage and infiltrated their wells, thus precipitating rampant disease, which further undercut the settlement’s ability to sustain itself.  The Powhatan Indians were initially willing to assist the colonists with handouts of food, but the starving colonists’ persistent demands for food and occasional raids precipitated intermittent conflict.  Despite an even sex ratio, the population of Virginia was maintained only through immigration from England and importations of slaves from Africa. The advent of rice and indigo cultivation eventually made Virginia profitable.
      
  Groups of young, mainly lower-class single men between the ages of 15 and 25 ventured to Virginia, lured by dreams of quick wealth, and mostly unprepared for the realities and challenges they faced.  Apart from the gentleman leaders, who expected the bulk of the colonists to do the manual labor, the early colonists were mostly unskilled laborers accustomed to a labor system in England where work was shared and thus left many idle until their “turns” came.  A scarcity of carpenters, farmers, and artisans prevented them from building a stable community.  In any case, the vast majority preferred to dig for gold rather than plant crops or build adequate shelters or defenses.  Jamestown was not built far enough up the James River, where the water flowed faster and was healthy to drink.  Instead, the James—particularly in summer—trapped the colonists sewage and infiltrated their wells, thus precipitating rampant disease, which further undercut the settlement’s ability to sustain itself.  The Powhatan Indians were initially willing to assist the colonists with handouts of food, but the starving colonists’ persistent demands for food and occasional raids precipitated intermittent conflict.  A severely imbalanced sex ratio resulted in virtually no natural population growth throughout the seventeenth century.  The venture teetered on the brink of collapse until the efforts of Capt. John Smith and Gov. Sir Thomas Dale forced the bickering colonists to work together in planting food crops, building adequate shelters, and repairing relations with the local Indian tribes.  The discovery of tobacco led to a widely dispersed pattern of settlement as gentlemen built plantations and yeomen created small farms, which inhibited centralized community growth or town construction.
      
 

Virginia was a charitable enterprise spearheaded by James Oglethorpe, who hoped to relocate nonviolent criminals and debtors to America, where he hoped to make Virginia a producer of silk.  The colonists were to be reformed through hard work, so slavery was prohibited, as was the possession and sale of alcohol, which was feared would cause the colonists to lapse back into their profligate and idle ways.  In addition to these ambitious goals, Virginia sat at the southern edge of English colonization, and was intended to be a buffer area against Spanish Florida, and would be the first line of defense against any prospective Spanish invasion.  A scarcity of carpenters, farmers, and artisans among the colonists prevented them from building a stable community.  In any case, the vast majority preferred to dig for gold rather than plant crops or build adequate shelters or defenses.  A severely imbalanced sex ratio resulted in virtually no natural population growth throughout the seventeenth century.  The venture teetered on the brink of collapse until the efforts of Capt. John Smith and Gov. Sir Thomas Dale forced the bickering colonists to work together in planting food crops, building adequate shelters, and repairing relations with the local Indian tribes.  The silk enterprise collapsed due to the inclement climate for the mulberry trees and the silkworms imported from China, but the discovery of tobacco rescued the colony from dissolution.


      
  Virginia was established as a prospective haven for persecuted English Catholics under the leadership of the Calvert family, who hoped to capitalize upon the tobacco boom of the 1620s.  However, most English Catholics refused to relocate to America, and thus the majority of the colonists were Protestant, thus forcing the Calvert’s to protect religious liberty in the colony’s charter.  Having learned from early colonial ventures’ mistakes, Virginia prospered early, and a balanced sex ratio led to rapid natural increase and steady immigration fromEngland, as well as steady importation of African slaves to work the plantations.  The Powhatan Indians were initially willing to assist the colonists with handouts of food, but the starving colonists’ persistent demands for food and occasional raids precipitated intermittent conflict.

 

Question 19.19. What were the reasons behind Opechancanough’s leading a major Powhatan attack upon the Virginia colony in 1622, and again in 1644? (Points : 4)

        A.  Opechancanough had always opposed his brother Powhatan’s accommodating the English settlers, and resolved to destroy the still fragile colony as soon as his brother was dead.
      
  B.  Although relations between the English and the Powhatans were initially peaceful, and the Indians more than hospitable, the English persistently lorded their supposed racial superiority over their native neighbors.  They demanded increasing quantities of food even as they refused to grow any of their own, determined to extract gold or silver that had yet to be discovered.  The Powhatans suffered from food shortages as a result, and Opechancanough resolved to punish the English at the earliest opportunity.
      
  C.  Opechancanough and the other Powhatan leaders concluded that the devastating diseases that scythed through their villages in 1608 and again in 1617-1619 were part of a deliberate plan by the English to wipe them out and take their lands.
      
  A and B together.
      
  B and C together.
      
  A and C together.

 

Question 20.20. The two sources of labor in Virginia were indentured servitude and slavery.  What is the difference between these two systems? (Points : 4)

        Indentured servitude is a system whereby someone contracts with another to work for that person for a modest wage, and food and lodging for a period of years, while slavery was similar except that the term of service was for life.
      
  Indentured servitude and slavery were exactly identical to each other, being a lifelong servitude to a master, except that whites were referred to as servants while blacks were referred to as slaves.
      
  Indentured servitude is a system whereby someone contracts with another to work for that person for a period of years (usually 5 to 7 years) in exchange for passage from Europe to America, while slavery was for all intents and purposes a lifelong condition for Africans and African-Americans who were brought involuntarily into forced labor.
      
 

Slavery is a system whereby someone contracts with another to work for that person for a period of years (usually 5 to 7 years) in exchange for passage from Africa to America, while indentured servitude was for all intents and purposes a lifelong condition for Europeans who were brought involuntarily into forced labor.


      
  There was absolutely no difference between slavery and indentured servitude, the two terms being used interchangeably.

 

Question 21.21. What do the laws governing servants and slaves passed in Virginia in 1661 and 1662, as well as the depositions of Katherine Watkins, John Aust, William Harding, Mary Winter, Lambert Tye, and Humphrey Smith in the case of Virginia v. John Long (1681), indicate was the nature of servant-slave relations in mid-16th-century Virginia? (Points : 4)

        A.  Relations between slaves, indentured servants, and other poor whites were very close.  They often lived in the same quarters, worked side-by-side every day, and in off hours socialized together, leading to illicit sexual relations and marriages between servants and slaves, thus accounting for the growing Mulatto population of the Chesapeake.
      
  B.  Virginia authorities worked very hard to maintain a separation between blacks and whites, both in the fields and other workplaces, as well as in social arenas.  The Mulatto population came about more often from the raping of female slaves by their masters, though occasionally slaves raped free white women like Katherine Watkins.
      
  C.  Relations between slaves, indentured servants, and other poor whites were close, and intermarriage was actively encouraged by Virginia authorities, who saw this strategy as bolstering white supremacy.
      
  D.  The status of servants and slaves was not very well established before 1661, as high mortality rates rendered indentured servitude a sort of lifelong slavery.  The children of slave mothers were not automatically considered to be slaves, though it was commonly understood that blacks were slaves, and whites were free or at worst temporarily indentured.  The confusion over status and the profusion of black-white sexual liaisons led to the Virginia assembly’s passing the laws in question to clarify social status.
      
  A and B together.
      
  B and C together.
      
  A and D together.

 

Question 22.22. What were the major causes of Bacon’s Rebellion? (Points : 4)

        Bacon’s Rebellion began in 1656 when Nathaniel Bacon, an indentured servant abused by his master, rallied his fellow servants and slaves into an army that armed itself in a forceful assault on the Jamestown armory.  Vowing to march on the governor’s home and force him to resign and take power for himself, they successfully seized control of Virginia for six months before royal authority was restored.
      
  Bacon’s Rebellion began in 1676 when Nathaniel Bacon, a cousin of Gov. William Berkeley, railed against the “Grandee” controlled government’s refusal to defend the settlers against “the protected and Darling Indians,” and vowed “to ruine and extirpate all Indians in Generall.”  He rallied servants, slaves, yeoman farmers, and small planters to his cause, which appeared to be a coup that would make Bacon governor.
      
  Bacon’s Rebellion began in 1644 when Nathaniel Bacon, a Christianized Powhatan Indian and brother of Opechancanough, vowed “to ruine and extirpate all English in Generall,” and led an Indian army augmented by runaway slaves whom he promised to send back to Africa.  His assault on Jamestown was a miserable failure.
      
  Bacon’s Rebellion began in 1622 when Nathaniel Bacon, Capt. John Smith’s brother-in-law, swore to avenge Smith’s disgrace at the hands of Christopher Newport ten years earlier.  Bacon convinced the Powhatan Indians to attack Jamestown, but the assault was repulsed.
      
  Bacon’s Rebellion began in 1626 when Nathaniel Bacon, a cousin of Gov. William Berkeley, railed against the “Grandee” controlled government’s refusal to defend the settlers against “the protected and Darling Indians,” and vowed “to ruine and extirpate all Indians in Generall.”  He rallied servants, slaves, yeoman farmers, and small planters to his cause, which appeared to be a coup that would make Bacon governor.

 

Question 23.23. Which of the following accurately describes the Pueblo Revolt? (Points : 4)

        Spanish missionaries actively suppressed the Pueblos’ religious beliefs and practices as part of their program to make them into surrogate Spaniards as well as obedient Catholic Christians.  The churches and missions built in and near Santa Fe were constructed using forced Indian labor, and Indian slaves tilled the irrigated fields, against which the Pueblos resisted.  A leader, known by the Spanish as El Pope`, organized the Pueblo tribes in a successful revolt in 1680 that expelled the Spanish population of Santa Fe for twelve years.
      
  Spanish missionaries actively suppressed the Pueblos’ religious beliefs and practices as part of their program to make them into surrogate Spaniards as well as obedient Catholic Christians.  The churches and missions built in and near Santa Fe were constructed using forced Indian labor, and Indian slaves tilled the irrigated fields, against which the Pueblos resisted.  A leader, known by the Spanish as El Zorro, organized the Pueblo tribes in a successful revolt in 1660 that expelled the Spanish population of Santa Fe for twelve years.
      
  Spanish missionaries actively encouraged the blending of Christianity with the Pueblos’ religious beliefs and practices as part of their program to make them into surrogate Spaniards as well as obedient Catholic Christians.  The churches and missions built in and near Santa Fe were constructed using forced African labor, and slaves tilled the irrigated fields, against which the Pueblos complained.  A leader, known by the Spanish as El Pope`, organized the Pueblo tribes in a successful revolt in 1680 that failed to expel the Spanish population of Santa Fe.
      
  Spanish missionaries actively suppressed the Pueblos’ religious beliefs and practices as part of their program to make them into surrogate Spaniards as well as obedient Catholic Christians.  The churches and missions built in and near Santa Fe were constructed using forced Indian labor, and Indian slaves tilled the irrigated fields, against which the Pueblos resisted.  A leader, known by the Spanish as El Pope`, organized the Pueblo tribes in a successful revolt in 1660 that expelled the Spanish population of Santa Fe for twelve years.
      
  Spanish missionaries actively encouraged the blending of Christianity with the Pueblos’ religious beliefs and practices as part of their program to make them into surrogate Spaniards as well as obedient Catholic Christians.  The churches and missions built in and near Santa Fe were constructed using forced Indian labor, and Indian slaves tilled the irrigated fields, against which the Pueblos resisted.  A leader, known by the Spanish as El Pope`, organized the Pueblo tribes in a successful revolt in 1670 that failed to expel the Spanish population of Santa Fe.

 

Question 24.24. If sugar processing in the West Indies was so much more profitable than producing Chespeake tobacco, then why did the majority of Englishmen migrating to the New World opt to go to Virginia to become tobacco planters? (Points : 4)

        A.  The climate of the Chesapeake was comparatively more pleasant than that of the West Indies.  Fewer immigrants sickened and died in Virginia than in Barbados.
      
  B.  The English government set a very strict quota on how many migrants could go to Barbados or any of the other English “sugar colonies,” while allowing unrestricted emigration to Virginia.
      
  C.  Starting up a sugar plantation was very expensive, due to the limited availability of land, the costs of purchasing slaves and processing equipment.  Starting up a tobacco was rather inexpensive, as large tracts of land were available at low prices and little expensive equipment was needed.
      
  A and B together.
      
  B and C together.
      
  A and C together.

 

Question 25.25. Which of the following accurately describes the founding of (South) Carolina? (Points : 4)

        Barbados, being so small and covered with sugar plantations, was unable to cultivate food crops to feed the large slave populations, and a group of proprietors led by John Colleton received a charter from King Charles II in 1663 to establish a colony between the Chesapeake colonies and Spanish Florida.  It was hoped that the Carolinians would produce food crops for export to Barbados, as well as a “cash crop” comparable to West Indian sugar.
      
  Barbados, being so small and covered with sugar plantations, was unable to cultivate food crops to feed the large slave populations, and a group of proprietors led by Christopher Newport received a charter from King Charles I in 1633 to establish a colony between the Chesapeake colonies and Spanish Florida.  It was hoped that the Carolinians would produce a variety of sugar that grew faster than West Indian sugar and was less expensive to process.
      
  Barbados, being so small and covered with sugar plantations, was unable to cultivate food crops to feed the large slave populations, and a group of proprietors led by John Carroll received a charter from King Charles II in 1683 to establish a colony between the Chesapeake colonies and Spanish Florida.  It was hoped that the Carolinians would produce food crops for export to Barbados, as well as a “cash crop” comparable to West Indian sugar.
      
  (South) Carolina was a proprietary venture by the Calvert family, which received a charter from King Charles II in 1663 to establish a colony that would be a Catholic haven as well as a second major tobacco producer to meet exponentially growing demands for tobacco in Europe.
      
  (South) Carolina was founded in 1663 originally as a penal colony for rebellious slaves, who taught their white overseers about rice cultivation, and thus the new colony discovered its major cash crop.

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