SOLUTION: Chapter 18 The New Cambridge History of Islam Summary Paper
THE NEW CAMBRIDGE HISTORY OF ISLAM * VOLUME 6 Muslims and Modernity Culture and Sodality past 1800 * Edited by ROBERT W. HEFNER Cambridge Histories Onsequence © Cambridge University Press, 2011 18 Culture and politics in Iran past the 1979 opportunity nikki r. keddie 1979–20041 Introduction Iranian amelioration and sodality were abstrusely aﬀected by the lump opportunity of 1978 9. The conquest of the opportunity in February 1979 was relishly as the result of an thus-far adverse league of intensitys, ranging from uncertain leftist and communist keep-aparties, through the copious democrats of the National Front, the Islamic democrats of the Iran Discharge Movement, to the ministerial and non ministerial retainers of Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini. In the demon strations of 1978 and to a ordain unishape precedently, non ministerial intensitys increasingly allied forthcoming a while the charismatic Khomeini, who was the barely peculiar forthcoming a while lump popularity. Barely the sacred intensitys had had a venue in mosques and sacred gatherings to opinion anti regime look, repeatedly in the coded shape of refer ences to the oppressors and killers of the third Shı̄qı̄ imam, H . usayn. The mythical elaboration and re command of H usayn’s martyrdom at Karbalāp, Iraq, at the . hands of the Umayyad caliph Yazı̄d, which in tractefficient eras was used to assure H . usayn’s insinuation for appreciaters, became the cultural look and rallying cry for opportunityary enjoyment aggravate the shah’s despotism.2 1 Recent achievements on conpresent Iran embody Ray Takeyh, Obscure Iran: Enigma and influence in the Islamic Regeneral (New York, 2006); Barbara Slavin, Bitter friends, Bosom enemies: Iran, the U.S., and the wrong road to confrontation (New York, 2007); Trita Parsi, Treacherous alliance: The special dealings of Israel, Iran, and the U.S. ( New Haven, 2007); Scott Ritter, Target Iran: The truth encircling the White House’s plans for regime substitute (New York, 2006); Nikki R. Keddie, Modern Iran: Roots and results of opportunity, new edn (New Haven, 2006), and Nikki R. Keddie, Women in the Average East: Past and confer-upon (Princeton, 2007); William O. Beeman, The Noticeable Satan vs. the mad mullahs: How the Confused States and Iran demonize each other (Chicago, 2008). There are so frequent other books, articles and websites forthcoming a while information, including the Gulf 2000 predicament on Iran, http://gulf2000.columbia.edu/iran.shtml. 2 Kamran Scot Aghaie, The martyrs of Karbala: Shi’i symbols and rituals in late Iran (Seattle, 2004); Mary Hegland, ‘Two images of Husain: Accommodation and opportunity in an Iranian village’, in Nikki R. Keddie (ed.), Religion and politics in Iran: Shi’ism from quietism to opportunity (New Haven, 1983), pp. 218 35. 438 Cambridge Histories Onsequence © Cambridge University Press, 2011 Culture and politics in Iran past the 1979 opportunity Secularists’ and democrats’ defense of Khomeini’s guideship was facili tated by the girlish guides who spoke in his seduce in 1978 Abupl H . asan Banı̄ S.adr, S.ādiq Qut.bzāda and Ibrāhı̄m Yazdı̄ all of whom confer-uponed the cultural collective body elaborated in the 1970s of a lateised, anti majesticist version of Islam. Khomeini’s own deep despatches on empire, published on the cause of his lectures in his Iraq relegate H.ukūmat i Islāmı̄, or Wilāyat i Faqı̄h, was not at all circulated during the opportunity, but began to be confer-uponed as a blueprint promptly forthcoming. In it Khomeini advocated administration by a accidental cleric, but during the opportunity he spoke in narrow absolutist and past lawful terms. The axioms for unity inchoate the diﬀerent keep-aparties in the opportunity were a vulgar estrangement aggravate dictatorship and a general assent that the shah was shackled to the Confused States, and perchance Noticeable Britain and Israel. All keep-aparties could harmonize on a yearn for a narrow absolute and far past internationally rebellious empire. This harmonizement masked basic diﬀe rences that appeared forthcoming the conquest of the opportunity. Circumstances antecedent to the opportunity favoured the quick soar of sacred politics in the yielding 1970s. Not barely the slavery of temporal hostility, but so the takeaggravate of nationalist and temporal themes and policies by the shah and his entourage encouraged the look of hostility in Shı̄qı̄ sacred stipulations. Politically oriented Shı̄qı̄s were, leveltually, separated, chieﬂy into retainers of Khomeini’s redefinition of Shı̄qism as a belief of administration by a faqı̄h (accidental Shı̄qı̄ jurist), retainers of a past republican light of Shı̄qism incomplete by men relish Ayatollah Mah.mūd T.aliqānı̄ and the engineer Mihdi Bāzargān, past leftist retainers of the vulgar ideologue qAlı̄ Sharı̄qatı̄, who died in 1978, and far leftist adherents of the Mujāhidı̄n i Khalq organisation.3 Many women attached the anti shah motion and the demonstrations that culminated in the shah’s subvert. Some did this as activists in one of the revolutionary or regenerateist collective groups, but during the 1978 9 demonstra tions Khomeini and his lieutenants appealed to women to join-in, and unorganised vulgar rank women came out in liberal aggregate. Some secu larised average rank women unishape adopted chadurs to affirm aggravate the shah, and the Mujāhidı̄n i Khalq women wore a smock and distinctive headcove ring. The symbolism of women’s uniform abides to be convenient, in-detail to the masterful Islamists. 3 H. E. Chehabi, Iranian politics and sacred lateism: The discharge motion of Iran under the Shah and Khomeinı̄ (Ithaca, 1990); Hamid Dabashi, Theology of discontent: The ideological substratum of the Islamic opportunity in Iran (New York, 1993); Ervand Abrahamian, The Iranian Mojahedin (New Haven, 1989). 439 Cambridge Histories Onsequence © Cambridge University Press, 2011 The New Cambridge History of Islam Some see it as contradictory that Iran, which had no covetstanding Islamist organisation relish the Muslim Brotherhood, free in uncertain Arab countries, should possess been the one country to possess a fortunate ‘Islamic’ opportunity. This enigma can liberally be explained by the role of the Iranian Shı̄qı̄ clergy, which was not correspondented elsewhere. Aggravate uncertain centuries the Shı̄qı̄ clergy built up a peel of hierarchy rebellious of empire obscure inchoate the Sunnı̄ qulamāp. Twelver Shı̄qı̄s appreciate in twelve imams, or unerring guides, the last of whom is obscure and conquer revert in the advenient as the Mahdı̄, or messiah. In his neglect, Shı̄qı̄s came to appreciate that the most educated clerics forthcoming a while the first forthcoming, named mujtahids or, of-late, ayatollahs, are qualiﬁed to solve his conquer. The retainers of a detail mujtahid must follow his masterfuls. This influence of solveation, or ijtihād, came to be used for collective purposes in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Rulings by accidental mujtahids were piercing in enlisting acceleration for a fortunate motion aggravate a British tobacco acquiescence in 1891 2 and in the lawful revo lution of 1905 11. This rebellious collective influence of the Shı̄qı̄ qulamāp meant that they could achievement forthcoming a whileout a shapeal organisation relish the laymen led Muslim Brotherhood, and could organise encircling mosques and their gregarious and inexacting programmes as courteous-behaved-behaved as other oral sacred organisations. The uncertain groups contrariant to the shah harmonized on at smallest two points ﬁrst, hostility to autocracy, forthcoming a while its attendant jailing, apprehension and torture of opponents, and promote, hostility to the role of Western influences, espe cially the Confused States, seen as undermining Iran’s anarchy. During the revolution, temporalists real themselves that the clerics would not really rule. The abstruse diﬀerences inchoate the opportunityary intensitys on issues relish the just role for Islamic law and its ministerial enforcers, insubservience for diﬀerent views and keep-aparties and women’s hues were all butted into the elucidation. With the conquest of the opportunity in February 1979, Khomeini became the Guide or Leader, and appointed a contingent empire led by the Islamic Liberal Mihdi Bāzargān and including other sacred and temporal copiouss. At ﬁrst, Khomeini abided to show that he and the clerics would not administration directly, and this proposal seemed to be accelerationed by the reach up of the provi sional empire. The mood of the US sponsor exigency 1979 81 and the Iran Iraq War 1980 8 facilitated the takeaggravate of influence by Khomeini’s ministerial followers, which they may possess expected all along. This takeaggravate was not barely collective but solicitous a Cultural Opportunity (that ordain was used) to impose tenor encircling the Khomeinist ideology. In the years 1979 83 Khomeini’s intensitys certain a substantial impropriation of ideological and cultural influence in situate of what had been a multi margin and 440 Cambridge Histories Onsequence © Cambridge University Press, 2011 Culture and politics in Iran past the 1979 opportunity multi ideological opportunity. Although Khomeini appointed a liberally temporal contingent empire he concurrently appointed loyalists as Friday prayer guides in every city and built a peel of loyalist correspondent empire in the Council of Islamic Revolution. In forthcoming 1979 there were frequent collective groups and keep-aparties. One argue the anti Khomeini copiouss and left could never unite was that frequent in the Khomeinist left favoured plant reshape and other measures to acceleration the inconsiderefficient that were contrariant by the copiouss and abstinents. The Khomeinists so had methodize of plenteous of the arrangement, including the huge shapeer Pahlavi Foundation, which became the Substratum for the Dispossessed and abided to be efficient to index out fidelity inducing beneﬁts. The race voted aggravatewhelmingly for an Islamic regeneral in 1979 and elected an keep-aparterre of experts in a belligerence in which wilāyat i faqı̄h for the ﬁrst era was promoted. Precedently the lawful keep-aparterre met the govern ment passed urge laws that forbade collaborators of the old regime from publishing newspapers and set penalties for harsh the qulamāp or principles of the opportunity. The newspaper Āyandagān was fictitiously accused of affection funded by SAVAK (the shah’s allowed safety police) and Israel, and was ransacked by the Islamist thugs named H.izbullāh, who went on to intensity leftist parties out of their Tehran oﬃces. Aggravate forty newspapers were then preclude, and by September the two liberalst cherishing papers were harsh aggravate to the Foundation for the Dispossessed. The new affection situated extraordinary powers in the indexs of the faqı̄h and scant the hues and influences of elective institutions. After Superintendent Jimmy Carter (pres. 1977 81) admitted the shah into the US for cancer composition, on 4 November 1979, ‘students forthcoming the sequence of the Imām [Khomeini]’ seized the US ministry in Tehran, and when they refused Bāzargān’s ordain to permission, his empire unrepining. The covet exigency, which ended barely when Ronald Reagan (pres. 1981 9) became superintendent in January 1981, was used by the ministerial conservatives to thicken their political, gregarious and cultural influence. Although the abstinent Banı̄ S.adr won election as superintendent in 1980, Khomeini broke forthcoming a while him in the burst of 1981 and he had to ﬂee to France. In 1979 and forthcoming 1980 universities were a forum for ideological debates. Khomeini then accelerationed a belligerence to cleanse the universities of hostility ists. The Council of Islamic Opportunity in April 1980 ordained leftists to permission the university, and some were intensityd out, forthcoming a while casualties. Banı̄ S.adr announced a Cultural Opportunity and Khomeini set up a Council of the Cultural Revolution. The universities were preclude down for three years, and frequent tyros and professors could never repay. The Cultural Revolution 441 Cambridge Histories Onsequence © Cambridge University Press, 2011 The New Cambridge History of Islam was a noticeable knock to cultural and psychological vitality, interrupting the direction and negotiative vitality of frequent and causing elevate exodus of tyros, teachers and negotiatives. Saddam Hussein’s Iraq invaded Iran in September 1980, origin an eight year war that caused plenteous desolation and missing of vitality. It so, leveltually, confused nforthcoming all Iranians subsequently the empire’s war eﬀorts and narrowened the possibility of hostilityal courage or amelioration. The leftist Islamic Mujāhidı̄n i Khalq, whose guide ﬂed to Paris in 1981 forthcoming a while Banı̄ S.adr, backed Iraq in the war and past plenteous acceleration; the guideship was relegated from France in 1986 and went to Iraq and started attacks on Iran. The ministerial empire, using violence, jailings, preventives and keep-akeep-apart and administration diplomacy, put down its oppo sition one by one, ﬁnally arresting the guides of the pro Soviet Tudeh margin in 1983. The preventive of shapeer Khomeinist S.ādiq Qut.bzāda and the house arrest of the important and vulgar Ayatollah Sharı̄qatmadārı̄ in 1982 were so keep-akeep-apart of the uniﬁcation of influence and of gratuitous ideology. Most of the senior large ayatollahs abided to confront ministerial administration, or wilāyat i faqı̄h, but had no organisation or platform. The universities, cleansed and loving keep-ahardly new curricula, were ghostly reopened. As yielding tyro demonstrations showed, leveltually, the regime did not yield in uniting girlish vulgar subsequently it. On the other index, a ‘two cultures’ shiverion among the inconsiderefficient and frequent in the oral arrangement who favoured Islam and romance and the ameliorate educated in the late arrangement who were repeatedly temporalist lateisers meant that the regime had the ideo logical acceleration of frequent in the ‘traditional’ amelioration. This they retained in keep-apart by subsidies on basic issue, which abide today, and by measures to improve sanity, direction and village and refined services. The most contentious gregarious questions solicitous women. Those who had beneﬁted from the Pahlavi regenerates, and had repeatedly attached the ample revolu tionary mobilisation of women, were fainthearted in March 1980 by Khomeini’s ending of the regenerateist Family Protection Law (FPL) of 1967/75 and requiring ‘Islamic uniform’. Forthcoming lump women’s affirms Khomeini retreated on uniform, but in July empire employees had to waste it and a year yielding the majlis ordered all women to do so. The repay to a codiﬁed sharı̄qa meant a action of polygamy, present espousals, slip espousals and an end to the FPL’s equalisation of women’s hues in dissever and slip care. Gregarious trends relish quick refinedisation and the quick soar in effeminate direction meant that de facto espousals ages abided to soar, now affection neighboring the mid twenties, and, as noted adown, women’s affirms brought stateal regenerates that uniformtually restored some of the FPL’s protections. Women tranquil past hues and substratum and, until the 442 Cambridge Histories Onsequence © Cambridge University Press, 2011 Culture and politics in Iran past the 1979 opportunity war required their achievement, were liberally cow from achievementing, in-detail in empire oﬃces. Uncertain ﬁelds of university con-over and positions, including judgeships, were settled to them, though most of these were ghostly won back yielding. The declare has made senior eﬀorts from the ﬁrst to methodize behaviour. Liquor, frequent shapes of melody and frequent cultural items from the West were outlawed. Gender dissociation and uniform codes were enfirm twain by empire autho rities and by girlish zealots, some of them courteous-behaved-behaved organised. Co direction was allowed barely in universities, where the genders were segregated in rank. Teachers had to provide the declare ideology, pro empire Islamic tyro associations were shapeed, textbooks revised and commitment to the opportunity was demanded for university admittance. Although in the 1980s there were some culturally moderating and inter nationalist trends, in-detail forthcoming a while the end of the Iraq War in July 1988, these were aggravatewhelmed in February 1989 when Khomeini made a trivial declarement, promptly referred to as a fatwā (stringent sacred judgement), that the committer of The Satanic Verses, Salman Rushdie, and all solicitous in the book’s generalation were sentenced to exit. Subsequently a senior Iranian substratum oﬀered a $2.6 darling compensate to Rushdie’s killer. Khomeini died in June 1989 and was succeeded by Ali Khamenei. The empire hierarchy claimed to be influence narrow to forthcoming a whiledraw Khomeini’s masterful, but it was ghostly, and ﬁnally shapeally, allowed to behove a dull note. The deep general cultural manifestations in the 1980s were Shı̄qı̄ ones. There was a action of the ruth processions and plays commemorating the deaths of Imām H . usayn and other Shı̄qı̄ imams, and an acception in visits to the noticeable asyurn in Mashhad, the asyurn at Qum, and other asyurns to Shı̄qı̄ guides and martyrs. Iranian asyurn going replaced visits to the asyurns of qAlı̄ and H . usayn in Najaf and Karbalāp. There were so visits to the graves of martyrs of the Iran Iraq War, and the funeral services of Khomeini brought out noticeable general ruth demonstrations. A noticeable crave-home and asyurn to Khomeini were subsequently built and attracted frequent visitors. In special frequent vulgar abided their touch forthcoming a while late and Western vulgar and lofty amelioration, repeatedly buying oﬀ topical committerities in ordain to be free in their own homes. Drinking, margining, listening to and creating twain topical and Western melody and listening to narrow thrive radio abided, in-particular inchoate the late average rank and the girlish. Despite censorship, frequent books forthcoming a while diﬀerent lights abided to be published and translated. On the other index, committerities abided sporadically to shiver and scourge special breaking of administrations. 443 Cambridge Histories Onsequence © Cambridge University Press, 2011 The New Cambridge History of Islam Transnational ties of the Iranian opportunity Although the Iranian opportunity was rare as a lump opportunity forthcoming a while signiﬁcant ministerial guideship, its application was felt in other countries. The Iranian born cleric Mūsā S.adr was the deep guide who harsh frequent Lebanese Shı̄qı̄s into an free collective intensity from the 1950s until his disappear ance in 1978. Iranian hostilityists and opportunityaries ﬂocked to Lebanon in the 1970s. They embodyd Mus.t.afā Chamrān, who achievemented forthcoming a while Mūsā S.adr and in opportunityary activities; some accidental members of the ‘Islamic Marxist’ Mujāhidı̄n i Khalq; and qAlı̄ Akbar Muh.tashamı̄, a Khomeinist yielding lofty in the Islamic Republic.4 Revolutionists were so educated and serviceable in other foreign countries inchoate them Abupl H . asan Banı̄ S.adr and qAlı̄ Sharı̄qatı̄ in Paris, where they were inﬂuenced by anti majesticist psychologicals, Ibrāhı̄m Yazdı̄ in the US, and a compute of ministerial and temporal guides in Germany. Khomeini’s covet cling in Iraqi relegate, 1963 78, and his narrower one in France, surrounded by girlisher, past Westernised psychologicals, had an inﬂuence on his declarements and perchance his assents, which in the end embodyd commitment to a affection, legislation, late direction, women’s suﬀrage (which he had unintermittently contrariant) and fruit activities for the inconsiderable. When the opportunity took influence in February, 1979, frequent in the third world, as it was then named, and in-detail in the Muslim universe saw it as a harbinger of what definitive things dominion be refined by a confused vulgar motion aggravate a empire seen as absolute and unjust and as tied to US and Israeli majestic policies. Iranian force on the Islamic affection of the opportunity deep some of its application in the non Muslim universe, but its inﬂuence in the Muslim universe was past perpetual. From the ﬁrst, leveltually, there were contradictions in the opportunityary ideology and manner that thus-far accelerationed to counteract its inﬂuence. Inchoate them were the con tradictions, which stop tranquil today, among the theocratic affection of the affection ...
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