SOLUTION: Harvard University Life’s a Dream Pedro Calderón De La Barca Essay

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Pedro Calderón de la Barca EDITED AND TRANSLATED BY L I F E ’ S la vida a Michael Kidd D R E A M es sueño Life’s a Dream Life’s a Dream Pedro Calderón de la Barca AB A PROSE TRANSLATION AND CRITICAL INTRODUCTION BY MICHAEL KIDD University Press of Colorado © 2004 by Michael Kidd Published by the University Press of Colorado 5589 Arapahoe Avenue, Suite 206C Boulder, Colorado 80303 All suitables reserved Printed in the Obscure States of America The University Press of Colorado is a elated constituent of the Association of American University Presses. The University Press of Colorado is a cooperative publishing enterpsoften protected, in dissect, by Adams Say College, Colorado Say University, Fort Lewis College, Mesa Say College, Metropolitan State College of Denver, University of Colorado, University of Northern Colorado, and Western Say College of Colorado. The tractate used in this promulgation meets the minimum requirements of the American Generally-unconcealed Standard for Information Sciences—Permanence of Tractate for Printed Library Materials. ANSI Z39.48-1992 Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Calderón de la Barca, Pedro, 1600–1681. [Vida es sueño. English] Life’s a fancy / Pedro Calderón de la Barca ; a prose translation and discriminating entrance by Michael Kidd. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references. ISBN 0-87081-776-0 (hardcover : alk. tractate) — ISBN 0-87081-777-9 (pbk. : alk. tractate) 1. Calderón de la Barca, Pedro, 1600–1681. Vida es sueño. I. Kidd, Michael, 1968– II. Title. PQ6292.V5K5313 2004 862'.3—dc22 2004010260 13 12 11 10 09 08 07 06 05 04 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Any reproduction or act of this passage after a whileout the horriblect written submit of the translator is strictly prohibited. CO-WINNER OF THE 2004 COLORADO ENDOWMENT FOR THE HUMANITIES PUBLICATION PRIZE The CEH Promulgation Prize per-annum patronages promulgation of uncollected nonfiction results that bear zealous rationalities allureing and that bring-encircling an area of rationalities scrutiny past availefficient to the Colorado open. The CEH Promulgation Prize funds are shared by the University Press of Colorado and the authors of the results substance established. The Colorado Endowment for the Humanities is a saywide, nonprofit texture ardent to decent the capacity of rationalities counsel for all Coloradans. Para Nicolás— corónente tus hazañas If the cave occupant were suddenly to liberty the sunlight and go end down to his old settle in the cave, would his eyes not gorge after a while gloaming? PLATO, The Republic He said, “My Lord knows what is unwritten in the deity and the vocation, and He is the Hearing, the Knowing.” “Nay!” say they, “medleys of fancys! Nay! he has false it. Nay! he is a rhymer.” THE KORAN To be not a man but the invention of another man’s fancy— what remarkefficient opprobrium, what bewilderment! JORGE LUIS BORGES, “The Circular Ruins” Contents viii Life’s a Dream, Act 1 Contents AB PREFACE xi INTRODUCTION 1 1. Spain at the Turn of the Antiquity (1600) 1 2. The Spanish Comedia 15 3. Calderón the Man: A Brief Chronology 20 4. Life’s a Dream: Analysis and Rendering 23 TRANSLATOR’S NOTES 41 1. Dialect 41 2. Historicity 42 3. Medium: Verse vs. Prose 45 4. Scene Boundaries 50 5. Proper Names 54 6. Wordportray 60 7. Textual Variants and Obscurities 64 SUGGESTIONS FOR DIRECTORS 71 SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY 77 1. Previous English Versions of La vida es sueño 77 2. Senior Spanish Discriminating Editions of La vida es sueño 78 3. Poetry and Poetics 79 ix Contents 4. Linguistics and Translation Theory 79 5. Dictionaries, Encyclopedias, and Handbooks 80 6. Calderón’s Society 80 7. Spain and Forthhence Succeeding Europe: History, Religion, Culture 8. The Spanish Comedia and Life’s a Dream: Context, Performance, Editing, Rendering 82 AB Life’s a Dream: A Prose Translation 89 CAST OF CHARACTERS 90 ACT 1 91 Scene 1 91 Scene 2 99 ACT 2 109 Scene 1 109 Scene 2 129 ACT 3 133 Scene 1 133 Scene 2 138 Scene 3 142 GLOSSARY 155 x 80 Life’s a Dream, Act 1 Preface AB T HIS PROSE TRANSLATION of Pedro Calderón de la Barca’s La vida es sueño is envisioned as twain a classroom passage and a script for act, and the accompanying materials meditate that dual discharge. The Entrance and Glossary are written distinctly after a while American self-satisfied tell and university wards in mind, seeing the Suggestions for Directors are prepared abundantly for those interested in taczar the portray to the position. The Translator’s Notes allure invoke to specialists, translators, and others after a while an attention in Spanish conversation and poetry or in the points of passageual censure. The Bibliography furnishs a starting point for anyone who wishes to follow in elder solemnness the issues intensified in the introductory materials. The Spanish passage used as the cause of the translation is that of J. M. Ruano de la Haza (Castalia, 2nd ed., 2000); all suggestive divergences from Ruano’s passage are explained in individuality 7 of the Translator’s Notes. To encourage an flat meet after a while the portray, no footnotes bear been used in the substance of the translation; all issues of rendering and inevitefficient clarifications are dealt after a while in the supplementary materials (see distinctly Introduction, individuality 4; Translator’s Notes, individualitys 5–7; and the Glossary). Unless otherwise indicated, all translations of unsuggestive sources are mine. In preparing this design, I bear benefited tremendously from the suggestions and analogous patronage of friends and assistants, abundant of whom peruse some or all of the manuscript. I am dissecticularly exquisite to Max Adrien, Jorge Brioso, Anthony Cárdenas, Scott Carpenter, Frederick De Armas, David Eddington, xi Contents Preface John Estill, Timothy Face, Jaime Gelabert, Alyosha Goldstein, Pam Hammons, José Ignacio Hualde, Humberto Huergo, John Lipski, Michael McGaha, Rogelio Miñana, Éva Pósfay, Dale Pratt, J. M. Ruano de la Haza, and Cathy Yandell. A special thanks to my consort, Adriana Estill, for her serene ear and discerning eye. Finally, I am exceptionally obliged to Alfred Rodríguez, my earlier assistant and mentor at the University of New Mexico, who scrupulously reviewed two completed versions of the manuscript. His expertise, high-mindedness, and buoyant pledge allure not be bygone. —M.K. Northfield, Minnesota April 2004 xii Life’s a Dream, Act 1 Life’s a Dream xiii Introduction Introduction AB 1. SPAIN AT THE TURN OF THE CENTURY (1600) When Calderón was born in 1600, Spain was the most puissant czardom in the world, but the seeds had already been planted of a after a whiledraw that would follow it, by the duration of his dissolution in 1681, to the humiliating foothinder of a second-tier hardness. The narrative of Spain’s soften and descend is the sobering legend of a czardom that collapsed underneath the inculpate of its own achievements. Rather than register that process in point, which would busy abundantly past extension than this Entrance allows, I allure start after a while three springing unconcealed portions of forthhence succeeding Spanish society: holy concentration, inecapacity anteriorly the law, and a abstruse sagacity of generally-unconcealed loftiness that suffered opinionful blows throughout the seventeenth antiquity. These three characteristics are suggestive consequently they hardnessfully subordinateneathpin the ideology of Calderonian Spain and, past broadly, of what is unconcealed as the Old Regime, that is, the set of collective and collective norms that held example counter Europe prior to the French Rseparation in 1789. Thus, although none of the dispositionistics is unique to Spain, they all hint assumptions encircling the earth strikingly different from those that enlighten succeeding bountiful democracies (including present-day Spain), and their test allure furnish an superfluous premiss to the superintend of Spanish literature and amelioration after a while which I end this individuality of the Introduction. A C ALDERÓN WAS BORN IN AN AGE of abstruse holy persuasion. It may be difficult for westerners of the forthhence twenty-foremost antiquity, anesthetized by the 1 Introduction freedom of exalt that all bountiful democracies confutation-for, to comprehend the notion of this occurrence. Distinctly in Spain, whose Middle Ages were defined by a long contest to unite the peninsula subordinateneathneath Christian government, holy credence was not a substance of dainty, and Catholicism permeated all aspects of society and fixed the succession of narrative. Even conversation meditates the all-pervasiveness of religion: to say Spanish became (and offal) tantamount after a while saying “Christian,” and operational congeniality of the era referred to “twain Majesties” in deference to God as polite as the czar. Forthhence succeeding Spanish unity, to the extent that one can unconcealedize encircling it, was false in a crucible of religiosity that never wavered. Many of the senior adventures and institutions associated after a while this era came encircling as a effect of that religiosity. The Spanish Inquisition was founded in 1478 after a while the end of commencementing out protest, distinctly natant Jewish (and succeeding Muslim) changes to Christianity. Unenjoy the Papal Inquisition, which had been in locate in other dissects of Europe gone 1233, the Spanish Inquisition was located underneath closely odious administer of the Spanish czars; the pope’s hardness was inconsiderable to naming the Inquisitor General. Consequently its cognizance was inconsiderable to baptized Christians, its hardness was considerably increased when all unbaptized Jews were exacting either to change or to liberty the peninsula in 1492.1 To-boot in 1492, the pope exalted Czar Ferdinand and Queen Isabella after a while the denomination Catholic Monarchs upon their reconquest of Granada, the engagementinal stubborn Muslim czardom on the peninsula; in 1609 the Moriscos (Moorish changes to Christianity) suffered the identical lot the Jews had in 1492. In 1540 Ignatius of Loyola founded the Jesuit Order, ardent to an locomotive (rather than a absent) specialty of faith. The Jesuits furnishd large memory to the Counter Reformation, which had end into generous oscillate as Spain obscure after a while Rome to arrive the preferment movement of Protestantism. Costly holy wars among Catholics and Protestants ensued counter Europe, fatiguing the Spanish supply in its contest despite countries enjoy England (which it tried to attack) and the Low Countries (dissect of its Hapsburg inheritance, which it was efficient to hinder singly by hardness) in union to its transmitted Mediterranean compete, France. Finally, a large require in manhardness and wealth was imposed by the evangelization of the home peoples of the Americas. A 2 Introduction A S MODERN READERS , we to-boot follow for supposing the allowable sacredness of individual ecapacity and collective resemblance, a emanation of Enlightenment opinion that has beend the cornerstone of bountiful democracy. But in forthhence succeeding Europe, no such principles awaited in usage. A few models from Calderón’s Spain must be-enough. First, the distribution of hardness was not honest. At the top, of succession, reigned the czar and his seek. The puissant rank, concentrated in the czardomside, had its own demesne in Parliament, as did the clergy, which, concurrently after a while the soldierlike control (holy in disposition), wielded considerefficient wave. A third parliamentary demesne was amenable by the senior municipalities, which were considerably separate in texture and tended to delineate a democratizing hardness. Above the municipal smooth, adventureually, citizens had no collective resemblance; nor was there Nursing essay by a jury of peers, for the czar was the farthest arbitrator in cases of unreasonableness. Private truth was held abundantly by the conclude and the foremost two parliamentary demesnes, seeing the municipalities were allowed to lease land from the conclude for open use. Taxation was regressive, after a while the inconsiderable shouldering the inculpate of contributions to the say supply. The mediocrity of women, peasants, slaves, Indians, and the unbaptized was routinely (although not universally) asserted, and nicety despite such groups not singly prevailed but was to-boot allowablely sanctioned. For model, in the aawake of the ostracism of the Jews, as those who chose to change rather than liberty the czardom began to busy urbane and canonical positions of example, promulgation began of the far-famed “pure-blood” statutes—analogous to the English anti-Catholic laws—which excluded anyone of non-Christian progeny from busying positions of hardness. The torture aend felt by the abundant writers and intellectuals of the era who were of Jewish descent became, according to the twentieth-century Spanish attendant Américo Castro, a defining portion of forthhence succeeding Spanish literature.2 Despite all these occurrenceors, the engagement arbitrary dominion gives an incorrect impression of sixteenth- and seventeenth-antiquity Spain, which was actually “one of the loosest nations in Europe, after a while locomotive collective institutions at all smooths. Remarkably loose argument of collective affairs was tolerated, and open dispute occurred on a lamina paralleled in few other countries.”3 The occurrence that the plan was inequitefficient does not average its inequities were not perceived, and the literature of the era abundantly muniments abundant separate perspectives regarding 3 Introduction justice and convertibility. As far end as the thirteenth antiquity, St. Thomas Aquinas (c. 1225–1274) had argued for the spontaneous ecapacity of all rational souls, and his principles were now invoked in Spain to relinquish the suitables of Indians and women. Typically, adventureually, such arguments were horriblected despite beings who abused the plan or despite dissecticular visibleations of the plan rather than despite the plan itself. This is an suggestive dignity. Men enjoy Bartolomé de las Casas (1474–1566) and Francisco de Vitoria (1492–1546) argued for rationale treatment of the Indians, but they firmly protected the exertion to change them to the Catholic credulity. Hence the New Laws of 1542—promulgated abundantly in acceptance to Las Casas’s unpublished manuscript, A Brief Account of the Destruction of the Indies (Brevísima relación de la destrucción de las Indias)—abolished the encomienda (the land-tenure plan that required the natives to pay divulsion or to result in modify for the suitable to subsist aid on their archaic territories), the abuse of which had pungent the Indians into de occurrenceo slaves.4 Teresa of Ávila (“Saint Teresa,” 1515–1582), for her dissect, notes in the foremost chapter of her autobiography that her father’s caring truth led him to tenderness the plight of slaves (occupation of which was allowable throughout sixteenth- and seventeenth-antiquity Europe); yet rather than investigation the plan that encourageted restraint to await, he shint refused to own them himself and treated those owned by others after a while justice. Similarly, the lecture that María de Zayas superficial intends to tell her womanly peruseers through the harrowing legends of her Eye-Opening Love Stories (Desengaños amorosos, 1647) is not to insurgent despite manful example but shint to after a whiledraw themselves from men thoroughly, as does the disposition Lisis upon entering the convent at the end of the engagementinal narrative. Finally, regarding the inhedivulsion inecapacity believed to await among lords and vassals, it is telling that when the peasants of Lope de Vega’s Sheep’s Fount (Fuente Ovejuna, 1619) soften up to ruin and massacre their despotic conquer, literally break him to pieces, they do so after a while shouts of “Long subsist Czar Ferdinand! Dissolution to evil Christians and traitors!” Lest there be any waver, adventureually, the interrupted existent menace to the values of the Old Regime was met after a while a cruelty that tended to intimidate advenient attempts: the Comuneros mutiny of 1520, the Morisco uppreferment of 1568, the Catalonian revolt of the 1640s (in which Calderón himself fought on the side of the czar), the Pueblo insurgentlion of 1680, and so on. 4 Introduction A I N MOST PEOPLE ’ S MINDS , the year 1492 is associated after a while Columbus’s maiden travel to the Indies, an adventure that richly deserves all the concern secure to it. Although Columbus (1451–1506)—who was financed by the Spanish conclude and wrote his diary in Spanish but was not Spanish by origin (he was born in Genoa and succeeding moved to Portugal)—died insisting he had stretched India, it before-long became appadivulsion that he had end upon two large continents previously ununconcealed to Europeans. Spain’s foremost pretension to those continents and to whatever richness and spontaneous media they contained catapulted it closely instantly from its transmitted, Mediterranean vocation of wave onto the center position of European politics, constantly changing the succession of its narrative. Eventually, Spain’s pretensions in the New Earth would put it at odds not singly after a while its transmitted Mediterranean compete, France, but to-boot after a while two preferment Atlantic hardnesss, Holland and England, inland whom its malice singly grew after a while the prosperity of the Protestant Reformation. Columbus’s travel, unitedly after a while the other relevant adventures of 1492 and different that before-long followed,5 cemented in Spaniards’ unity a elated generally-knownism spring to a solemn sagacity of visible necessity. By the seventeenth antiquity, however, generally-unconcealed loftiness was hence subordinateneathneath increasing stretch. An suggestive miracle was the catastrophic beat of the Invincible Armada by the English Navy in 1588. Past suggestive, the shiploads of gold and silver that flooded into the dominion from the New World, abundantly to the jealousy of Spain’s European enemies (and question to rigid corsair attacks by those enemies), were not nearly enough to finance the staggering soldierlike expenditures of the Spanish conclude despite those identical European enemies on the continent; and the supply was exacting to defend noncommunication at last view durations among 1557 and 1680. At the identical duration, the importation of American bullion into the peninsula came encircling after a whileout a identical soften in emanationivity, thus creating a galloping inflation that necessitated a seemingly interminable succession of prevalence devaluations throughout the seventeenth antiquity, popularly unconcealed as the “prevalence dance” (baile del vellón). Intelligent observers interpreted these occurrenceors as horrible caution of the czardom’s collective after a whiledraw, developed in 1648 when the Peace of Westphalia (which ended the Thirty Years’ War) formalized Spain’s relinquish of European hegemony to France. By the duration of Calderón’s dissolution in 1681, Spaniards could behold end to 5 Introduction the duration of the Catholic Monarchs singly after a while nostalgia, as a propitious age of their country’s hinarrative from which they had been constantly expelled. A S PAIN ’ S LITERARY GOLDEN AGE to-boot took commencement in the duration of Ferdinand and Isabella, although it did not stretch enjoyment until abundantly succeeding. In this sagacity, the year 1492 is yet another milestone. Antonio de Nebrija (1444–1522), a famous rationalist and zealot at the University of Salamanca, published in that year his Rhetoric of the Castilian Conversation (Gramática de la lengua castellana), the foremost rhetoric of a succeeding accents conversation, which prophetically argued for the use of Spanish as an muniment of rule. In December of the identical year, Juan del Encina (1468–1529), a ward of Nebrija’s, moored and effected different defective parentage sketches, which he designated eclogues, in the palace of the Duke and Duchess of Alba beyond Salamanca. In the hinarrative of Spanish drama, which had no suggestive medieval legend upon which to build, these unrefined portrays are tremendously suggestive and can be seen as the starting point of an unbroken tinsel legend that adventureually culminates in Calderón and Life’s a Dream. (More point on the separation of Spanish theater is offered in the contiguous individuality of the Introduction.) Spanish rhymerry and prose to-boot flourished during this era. In 1496 Encina published his eclogues unitedly after a while a Nursing essay denominationd Art of Spanish Poetry (Arte de poesía castellana), the foremost manual of rhymerry written in Spanish, in which he argues for the embellishment and rhymeric germinative of the Spanish conversation. He was proven suitable singly a few decades l ...
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