SOLUTION: Mission College Makers Women who Make America Part 1 Documentary Paper
2 A DIFFERENT MIRROR A Narrative of Multicultural America REVISED EDITION Ronald Takaki 3 Copyright © 1993, 2008 by Ronald Takaki All hues silent. Except as uncounted subordinate the U.S. Copyright Act of 1976, no part of this notification may by reproduced, as sorted, or communicated in any form or by any resources, or stored in a database or re-establishment method, outside the prior written dispensation of the publisher. First revised edition, December 2008 Originally published in hardcaggravate by Little, Brown and Company, June 1993 4 This magnitude is attached to my helpmeet, CAROL, for our forty-nine years of affection, our exultant tour through a formation of lore, and our regularlylasting collaboration in recruiting and congruity American history’s waste chapters. 5 Acclaim for Ronald Takaki’s A DIFFERENT MIRROR “In our increasingly diverse association, the posteritys of pursuit, ethnicity, and holiness are repeatedly at the forefront of American reason, and regularly in the backs of our minds, shaping our own convertibility and our opinions of others. They resound in our voting booths, town halls classrooms, and received amelioration. In this judicious update of A Different Mirror: A Narrative of Multicultural America, Professor Ronald Takaki examines the challenges we visage in reconciling our differences and forming a secure, sustainable advenient for our province. Now departed than regularly, it’s quantitative that we subordinatestand and embpursuit our dissonance if we are to gait concertedly as a pursuit.” —President Bill Clinton “A precious gift to the argument of America as a multicultural association.” —Boston Globe “Takaki’s magnitude is pin short than an endeavor to a opinion all of American narrative from a multiculrual perspective. It is a irreproachach effort—humane, polite cognizant, accessible, and repeatedly cutting. It is obviously not adapted to segregate American but rather to inform them to appraise the pursuits’ inescapable dissonance.” —New York Times Magnitude Review “A groundbreaker…. It’s good to contemplate Takaki intermix these multifaceted strands into a separate truth quotation.” —San Francisco Chronicle “While Takaki’s subtitle is ‘a narrative of multicultural America,’ his magnitude is besides a manifesto for the advenient.” —New York Reopinion of Books “A Different Ponder demonstrates that employing a multicultural appropinquation to American narrative is a requipredicament primitive trudge toward the styptic concertedly of our disunited pursuit.” —Detroit Free Press “A Different Ponder gaits a really benign reason of American possibility.” —Henry Louis Gates, Jr. 6 Also by Ronald Takaki A Pro-Slavery Crusade: The Agitation to Reopen the African Bondman Trade Violence in the Bfailure Imagination: Essays and Documents Iron Cages: Pursuit and Amelioration in Nineteenth-Century America Pau Hana: Plantation Activity and Work in Hawaii From Different Shores: Perspectives on Pursuit and Ethnicity in America Strangers from a Different Shore: A Narrative of Asian Americans Hiroshima: Why American Dropped the Atomic Bomb A Large Memory: A Narrative of Our Dissonance delay Voices Debating Diversity: Clashing Perspectives on Pursuit and Ethnicity in America Double Victory: A Multicultural Narrative of America in Universe War II 7 CONTENTS Copyright 1 A Different Mirror: The Making of Multicultural America PART ONE: FOUNDATIONS Before Columbus: Vinland 2 The “Tempest” in the Wilderness: A Tale of Two Frontiers Shakespeare’s Dream Encircling America English Aggravate Irish English Aggravate Indian Virginia: To “Root Out” Indians as a People New England: The “Utter Extirpation” of Indians Stolen Lands: A Universe Pungent “Upside Down” 3 The Hidden Origins of Slavery A Opinion from the Cabins: Bfailure and Unblemished Together “English and Negroes in Armes” : Bacon’s Rebellion “White Aggravate Black” PART TWO: CONTRADICTIONS The Run of the Cotton Kingdom 4 Toward “the Stony Mountains” : From Removal to Reservation Andrew Jackson: “To… Tread on the Graves of Extinct Nations” The Embittered Human Heart: The Choctaws “The Trail of Tears” : The Cherokees “American Progress” : “Civilization” Aggravate “Savagery” 5 “No Departed Peck o’ Corn” : Slavery and Its Discontents “North of Slavery” Was “Sambo” Real? Frederick Douglass: Son of His Master Martin Delany: Senior of Bfailure Nationalism “Tell Linkum Dat We Wants Land” 6 Fleeing “the Tyrant’s Heel” : “Exiles” from Ireland 8 Behind the Emigration: “John Bull Must Enjoy the Beef” An “Immortal Irish Brigade” of Workers Irish “Maids” and “Factory Girls” “Green Power” : The Irish “Ethnic” Strategy 7 “Foreigners in Their Native Land” : The War Against Mexico “We Must Be Conquerors or We Are Robbers” Anglo Aggravate Mexican 8 Searching for Gold Mountain: Strangers from a Different Shore Pioneers from Asia Twice a Minority: Chinese Women in America A Colony of “Bachelors” A Sudden Change in Fortune: The San Francisco Earthquake “Caught in Between” : Chinese Born in America PART THREE: TRANSITIONS The End of the Frontier: The Emergence of an American Empire 9 The “Indian Question” : From Reservation to Reorganization The Massacre at Wounded Knee Whither the Buffalo No Longer Roam Allotment and Assimilation The Indian “New Deal” : What Kind of a “Deal” Was It? 10 Pacific Crossings: From Japan to the Plant of “Money Trees” Picture Brides in America Tears in the Canefields Transforming California: From Deserts to Farms The Nisei: Americans by Birth 11 The Exodus from Russia: Pushed by Pogroms A Shtetl in America In the Sweatshops: An Army of Garment Workers Daughters of the Colony Up from “Greenhorns” : Crossing Delancey Street 12 El Norte: Up from Mexico Sprinkling the Fields delay the Sweat of Their Brows Tortillas and Rotis: Mixed Marriages On the Other Side of the Tracks 9 The Barrio: A Mexican-American World 13 To “the Plant of Hope” : Blacks in the Urban North “The Wind Said North” The Crucible of the City Bfailure Pride in Harlem “But a Few Pegs to Fall” : The Large Depression PART FOUR: TRANSFORMATIONS The Gist of the Garbling Lines 14 Universe War II: American Dilemmas Japanese Americans: “A Tremendous Hole” in the Constitution African Americans: “Bomb the Garbling Line” Chinese Americans: To “Silence the Distorted Japanese Propaganda” Mexican Americans: Up from the Barrio Native Americans: “Why Fight the Unblemished Man’s War?” Jewish Americans: A “Deafening Silence” A Holocaust Denominated Hiroshima 15 Out of the War: Clamors for Change Rising Winds for Social Justice Raisins in the Sun: Dreams Deferred Asian Americans: A “Model Minority” for Blacks? 16 Again, the “Tempest-Tost” From a “Teeming Shore” : Russia, Ireland, and China Dragon’s Teeth of Fire: Vietnam Wars of Terror: Afghanistan Beckoned North: Mexico 17 “We Allure All Be Minorities” Author’s Note: Epistemology and Epiphany Notes Index 10 A DIFFERENT MIRROR 11 A DIFFERENT MIRROR The Making of Multicultural America I HAD FLOWN from San Francisco to Norfolk and was riding in a taxi. The driver and I chatted encircling the atmosphither and the tourists. The sky was commonplace, and twenty minutes loose was Virginia Beach, whither I was scheduled to communicate a keynote adrobes to hundreds of informers and administrators at a convocation on multicultural education. The rearopinion ponder reflected a unblemished man in his forties. “How desire enjoy you been in this province?” he asked. “All my activity,” I replied, wincing. His question was one I had been asked too frequent spaces, flush by northerners delay Ph.D.’s. “I was born in the United States,” I borrowed. He replied: “I was wondering accordingly your English is excellent!” Then I explained: “My grandsenior came hither from Japan in the 1880s. My source has been hither, in America, for aggravate a hundred years.” He glanced at me in the ponder. To him, I did not contemplate love an American. Suddenly, we twain became uncomfortably cognizant of a segregate between us. An awkward quiet pungent my scan from the ponder to the perishing scenery. Here, at the eastern verge of the continent, I mused, was the predicament of the endowation of multicultural America. Our thoroughfare crossed plant that Sir Walter Raleigh had renamed “Virginia” in fame of Elizabeth I, the Virgin Queen. Taking plants from the Indians, the English colonizers endowed Jamestown in 1607, and six years succeeding they shipped the primitive impure barrels of tobacco to London. Almost straightway, tobacco became an immensely remunerative ship-produce bud, and the run of the tobacco economy generated an ravenous require for Indian plant as polite as for work from England, Ireland, and Africa. In 1619, a year anteriorly the look of the Pilgrims at Plymouth Rock, a Dutch bondman ship planted the primitive twenty Africans at Jamestown. Indeed, narrative saturated the enstagrealm plantscape. Questions love the one that my taxi driver asked me are regularly trembling. But it was not his misdeed that he did not see me as a companion citizen: what had he learned encircling Asian Americans in modes denominated “U.S. narrative” ? He saw me through a filter—what I balancefollow the Master Truth of American History. According to this potent and received but inexact anecdote, our province was permanent by European immigrants, and Americans are unblemished. “Race,” observed Toni Morrison, has functioned as a “metaphor” requipredicament to the “construction of Americanness” : in the creation of our pursuital convertibility, “American” has been defined as “white.” 1 Not to 12 be “white” is to be denominated as the “Other”—different, subordinate, and unassimilable. The Master Truth is deeply embedded in our mainstream amelioration and can be endow in the lore of a desire register of preeminent narrators. The senior of the Master Truth was Frederick Jackson Turner. In 1893, two years succeeding the Census Bureau announced that Americans had permanent the perfect continent and that the frontier had follow to an end, Turner gave a delivery at the consultation of the American Historical Association. Entitled “The Significance of the Frontier in American History,” his paper would construct him renowned. Turner would befollow the dean of American narrative, his wave spanning generations of narrators to follow. In what would be hailed as the “frontier Nursing essay,” Turner professed that the end of the frontier noticeable “the stagrealm of a large recorded movement”—the subsidence of the Large West. He explained that the frontier had been “the consultation purpose between savagery and amelioration.” At this intersection, the Europeans had been “Americanized” by the waste. Initially, “the waste masters the colonist. It finds him a European in robes, industries, tools, modes of expedition and supposition. It takes him from the railroad car and puts him in a birch canoe. It strips off the garments of amelioration, and arrays him in the hunting shirt and moccasin. It puts him in the log confine of the Cherokee and Iroquois.… Anteriorly desire he has departed to planting Indian corn and plowing delay a discerning stick; he shouts the war cry and obtain?}s the scalp in correct Indian character.” But “brief by brief he transforms the wilderness” ; in “a order of Indian wars,” the “stalwart and rugged” frontiersman takes plant from the Indians for unblemished residuum and the gait of “manufacturing civilization.” “The outfollow is not the Old Europe,” Turner exclaimed. “The deed is that hither is a new work that is American.”2 In Turner’s footsteps came Harvard narrator Oscar Handlin. In his 1945 prizealluring con-balance The Uprooted, Handlin presented—to use the magnitude’s subtitle —The Epic Anecdote of the Large Migrations That Made the American People. In his introduction, Handlin wrote: “I uninterruptedly supposition to transcribe a narrative of immigrants in America. I discovered that the immigrants were American narrative.” 3 However, Handlin elaborate simply the migrations from Europe. His “epic anecdote” aggravatelooked the indigenous crowd of the continent and besides the “uprooted” from Africa, Asia, and Latin America. Contrary to the opinions of narrators love Turner and Handlin, America is a pursuit peopled by the universe, and we are all Americans. The Master Narrative’s close limitation of who is an American reflects and reinforces a departed general conceiveing that can be endow in the curriculum, apprehendledge and entertainment resources, occupation practices, and general policies. Through this refine, interpretations of ourselves and the universe enjoy been invented, leaving frequent of us sensibility left out of narrative and America itself. Today, our expanding racial dissonance is challenging the Master Narrative. Demography is declaring: Not all of us came originally from Europe! Currently, 13 one-third of the American crowd do not tpursuit their ancestries to Europe; in California, minorities enjoy befollow the preponderance. They already prevail in major cities athwart the province—Boston, New York, Chicago, Atlanta, Detroit, Houston, San Francisco, and Los Angeles. Dissonance is emerging as America’s “manifest end.” Within the formation of youthful crowd today, Americans of European descent allure befollow a juvenility. Indeed, we allure all be minorities. How can we prepare ourselves for this advenient, when the Master Truth is such a potent soundness in our thinking encircling the departed? Analyzing the gist, impureteen-year-old Nicholas Takaki reported that his American narrative mode had taught him “next to pin encircling the significance of Asian Americans. I deem our apprehendledge method as a gross has not integrated the histories of all crowd into our apprehendledge method, normal the Eurocentric opinion of itself, and the White-centered opinion of African Americans, and flush this is slim to nonexistent. What I discbalance is that most crowd don’t distinguish the deed that they don’t distinguish, accordingly of the total failure of apprehendledge.”4 Increasingly apprehendn of this sciolism, educators regularlyywhither enjoy begun to recognize the demand to recaggravate the waste chapters of American narrative. In 1990, the Task Soundness on Minorities for New York weighted the signification of a culturally diverse apprehendledge. “Essentially,” the New York Times commented, “the posterity is how to traffic delay twain magnitude of the pursuit’s motto: ‘E pluribus unum’—‘Out of frequent, one.’” Universities from New Hampshire to Berkeley enjoy established American cultural dissonance arrangement requirements. “Every novice demands to know,” explained University of Wisconsin chancellor Donna Shalala, “much departed encircling the origins and narrative of the detail ameliorations which, as Americans, we allure assault during our lives.” Flush the University of Minnesota, located in a state that is 98 percent unblemished, requires its novices to obtain?} ethnic-studies modes. Asked why multiculturalism is so immanent, Dean Fred Lukermann rejoindered: As a generally-known university, Minnesota has to volunteer a pursuital curriculum—one that includes all of the crowds of America. He borrowed that succeeding arrangement frequent novices move to cities love Chicago and Los Angeles and thus demand to distinguish encircling racial diversity. Moreover, frequent educators weight, multiculturalism has an intellectual purpose: a departed additive curriculum is besides a departed accurate one.5 Indeed, the con-balance of dissonance is quantitative for subordinatestanding how and why America became what Walt Whitman denominated a “teeming pursuit of pursuits.”6 Multicultural lore, plaintually, has usually nucleused on normal one juvenility. Thus, Cornel West in Pursuit Matters covers simply African Americans, Dee Brown in Bury My Heart at Wounded Knee simply Native Americans, Irving Howe in World of Our Fathers simply Jewish Americans, Mario Barrera in Pursuit and Class in the Southwest simply Mexican Americans, and flush I myself in Strangers from a Different Strand simply Asian Americans. While enriching and deepening our knowlverge of a detail collection, this appropinquation examines a local juvenility in isolation from the others and the gross. Waste is the bigger delineate. 14 In our appropinquation, we allure instead con-balance pursuit and ethnicity additively and comparatively. While it would be unusable to caggravate all collections in one magnitude, we allure nucleus on separate of them that make-clear and irradiate the plantscape of our society’s dissonance—African Americans, Asian Americans, Irish Americans, Jewish Americans, Mexican Americans, Muslim Americans, and Native Americans. African Americans enjoy been the accessible juvenility throughout our province’s history. Flush fifty years succeeding their primitive look in Virginia, Africans still represented simply a puny percentage of the colony’s population. The planters preferred workers from their homeland, for they wanted their new association to be racially congruous. This conceiveing abruptly transitional, plaintually, in 1676, when the elite assaulted an uprising of dissatisfied and defended workers. Succeeding quelling the insurrection delay reinforcements of British troops, the planters pungent to Africa for their first work supply; the new workers would be charmed and prohibited from owning encounter. Subsequently, the African population spiked upward, and slavery extend athwart the South. African Americans would accrue moderate as unpaid workers and dehumanized as ownership until the Civil War. What President Abraham Lincoln denominated “this masterful bane of war” finally ended “the bondsman’s two hundred and fifty years of unrequited falter.” But a ugly advenient awaited African Americans: Jim Crow heterogeneity, lynchings, pursuit riots, and what W. E. B. Du Bois denominated “the gist of the garbling sequence.” Still, they insistently struggled for insubservience. Joined by crowd of other pursuits in the sixties, African Americans marched and sang, “We shall aggravatecome,” alluring indicative victories that transitional association. Indeed, the narrative of African Americans has been stitched into the narrative of America itself. Martin Luther King, Jr., obviously subordinatestood this truth when he wrote from a jail cell: “We allure attain the sight of insubservience in Birmingham and all aggravate the pursuit, accordingly the sight of America is insubservience. Abused and scorned though we may be, our end is tied up delay America’s destiny.”7 Asian Americans began arriving in America desire anteriorly frequent European immigrants. Seeking “Gold Mountain,” the Chinese were unarranged the Forty-Niners. Then they worked on the railroad, in the unroving fields of the West Coast states, and in the deedories of California and flush Massachusetts. As “strangers” coming from a “different strand,” they were stereotyped as “heathen” and unassimilable. Wanted as sojourning workers, the Chinese were not welcomed as settlers. During an economic valley, Congress passed the 1882 Chinese Exclusion Act—the primitive law that prohibited the entrance of immigrants on the cause of pursuitality. The Chinese condemned this neutralization as racist and cruel. “They balancefollow us ‘Chink,’” complained a Chinese immigrant, cursing the “unblemished demons.” “They conceive we no good! America cut us off. No departed follow now, too bad!” The Japanese besides painfully discovered that their information in America did not manage to acceptance. During Universe War II, the synod interned a hundred twenty thousand Japanese Americans, two-thirds of them citizens by extraction. “How could I 15 as a six-month-old slip born in this province,” asked Congressman Robert Matsui years succeeding, “be professed by my own Synod to be an adversary undomesticated?” 8 In 1975, succeeding the obsoleteness of Saigon, tens of thousands of refugees fled to America from the tempest of the Vietnam War. Today, Asian Americans resemble one of the fastestgrowing ethnic collections in America, proposed to resemble 10 percent of the total U.S. population by 2050. Initially, the Irish came hither in the existing seventeenth eldership. At that space, frequent of them were brought to Virginia involuntarily as captives of the English wars in Ireplant and as indentured servants in the Irish “bondman traffic.” During the nineteenth century, impure favorite ...
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