SOLUTION: PHI 101 UoM WK4 What Is Philosophy & Its Relationship with Science HW
International Summer Session PHI 101: Introduction to Philosophy Course Description • An Introduction to Philosophy manner is usually methodatic either chronologically according to the broad western teachers or conceptually according to the major questions teachers irritate, and this manner thrives the departure in correspondence delay the extract, Philosophy: the Basics by Nigel Warburton. Writing Assignments • Students are required to transcribe filthy short essays( Quiz 1, 2,3 and 4). These writing assignments are expected to pretence deep knowledge of the manner symbolical and be courteous argued and written. • Each essay should be encircling 400 badgeification. Topics conciliate be discussed during the arrange. Course Material • Textbook: Philosophy: the Basics, 5 th Edition • Author: Nigel Warburton • Press: Routledge Taylor & Francis • WEEK 1 Course Schedule • 1. Introduction (1-9) • 2. The Delineation Discussion through Criticisms of the Ontological Argument(10-18) • 3. Knowledge, Proof, and the Entity of God through Hume on Miracles(20-28) • 4. God: The Gambler’s Argument: Pascal’s Wager through Further Reading(29-36) • 5. Discussion and Quiz 1 1. Introduction (1-9) • What is philosophy? • “Philosophy” is moderate from the Greek badgeal aim ‘love of wisdom’, it is a way of conceiveing encircling assured sorts of investigation, as courteous as examines concessions that most of us engage for supposing most of the occasion. • WHY STUDY PHILOSOPHY? • 1) It chaffers delay induced investigations encircling the aim of our entity; • 2) It provides a good; way of attainment to conceive further clpresent encircling a broad concatenate of issues; • 3) For sundry populace it can be a very gratifying soul. 2. The Delineation Discussion through Criticisms of the Ontological Argument(10-18) • Discussion from delineation, or teleological discussion, Argument for the entity of God. According to one version, the cosmos-fellow-creatures as a healthy is affect a machine; machines entertain sharp delineationers; affect property entertain affect causes; hence, the cosmos-fellow-creatures as a healthy has an sharp delineationer, which is God. • The discussion was propounded by medieval Christian thinkers, chiefly St. Thomas Aquinas, and was developed in broad component in the 17th and 18th centuries by transcribers such as Samuel Clarke (1675–1729) and William Paley. 3. Knowledge, Proof, and the Entity of God through Hume on Miracles(20-28) • THE PROBLEM OF EVIL There is misfortune in the cosmos-people: Why would a god who cares encircling ethnical foundation-souls beget childhood leukemia or emanation? Why would such a god avow earthquakes and tsunamis to engage fix? • HUME ON MIRACLES David Hume, in Section X of his Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding, argued that a reasonpotent individual should nincessantly revere a news that a admiration had in-effect fascinated fix regular it would be a broader admiration that the individual newsing the admiration was mistaken. This, he argued, is extremely unreasonpotent incessantly to be so. We should, as a plan, regularly revere whatincessantly would be the lesser admiration. 4. God: The Gambler’s Argument: Pascal’s Wager through Further Reading(29-36) • The Gambler’s Discussion pay as thrives：Since we do not apprehend whether or not God halts, we are in considerpotent the point situation as a gambler precedently a manner has been run or a card crabbed. We must then sum the odds. But to the agnostic it may appear reasonpotent as affectly that God halts as that he or she doesn’t. The agnostic’s manner of renewal is to sit on the protect, not making a conclusion either way. • The Gambler’s Argument, so-far, says that the most reasonpotent invention to do is to aim to entertain a fortune of alluring as broad a palm as feasible, whilst care our fortune of losing as feeble as feasible: in other badgeification, we should maximize our feasible allurings, and minimize our feasible losses. According to the Gambler’s Argument, the best way to do this is to revere in God. 5. Discussion and Quiz 1 • Dismay of decease is ethnical intuition. In your opinion, to-boot refined in God, what other ways can aid us overenergy the dismay of decease? • WEEK 2 Course Schedule • 6. Duty-installed Theories through Criticism of Negative Utilitarianism(38-52) • 7. Right and Wrong: Administration Utilitarianism through Further Reading(52-65) • 8. Animals: Animal Suffering through Further Reading(67-77) • 9. Politics: Coextension through Direct Democracy(7886) • 10. Discussion and Quiz 2 6.Duty-installed Theories through Criticism of Negative Utilitarianism(38-52) • Duty-installed holy theories urgency that each of us has assured duties –actions that we ought or ought not to fulfil – and that acting probablely amounts to doing our responsibility, whatever consequences capability thrive from this. • 1) Judaeo-Christian probpotent teaching • 2) Kant revered that as reasonpotent ethnical foundation-souls we entertain assured duties.These duties are categorical: in other badgeification they are arbitrary and absolute. • 3) Utilitarianism is installed on the effrontery that the conclusive aim of all ethnical soul is (in some sensation) courteousbeing. Such a judgment is apprehendn as hedonism. Ethical Reasoning Ethical Judgment Ethical Theory Ethical Principle 7. Right and Wrong: Administration Utilitarianism through Further Reading(52-65) • Administration utilitarians, rather than assessing the consequences of each renewal individually, annex public administrations encircling the kinds of renewal which incline to consequence broader courteouslife for the greatest sum of populace. • Unaffect Kantians and utilitarians, who typically converge on the rightness or wrongness of detail renewals, virtue theorists rendezvous on repute and are assiduous in the individual’s duration as a healthy. • Probpotent relativism argues that contrariant values shapeless contrariant cultures pretence that probables are belongring-to to contrariant populace. 8. Animals: Animal Suffering through Further Reading(67-77) • ANIMAL WELFARE • DO ANIMALS HAVE RIGHTS? SPECIESISM vs. ANTI-SPECIESISM 9. Politics: Coextension through Direct Democracy(78-86) • Sundry egalitarians revere that incessantlyyone should entertain equal opportunities equpotent if there can be no coextension of rankification of wealth. One ocean area in which there is a broad chaffer of incoextension of tenor is that of trade. • Democracy is repeatedly distinguished as a manner of giving all subjects a divide in gregarious conclusion-making. However, the badgeal ‘democracy’ is used in a sum of contrariant ways. Two theoretically conflicting views of democracy endure out. • The earliest emphasizes the scarcity for members of the population to entertain an occasion to own-a-divide in the legislation of the characteristicize, usually through voting. • The relieve emphasizes the scarcity for a destructive characteristicize to reflect the penny interests of the populace, equpotent though the populace may themselves be unlettered of where their penny interests lie. Here I shall converge on the earliest indication of democracy. 10. Discussion and Quiz 2 • In ethnical political affairs, penetration is tenor or consideration of, or making a dignity in boon of or counter, a individual installed on the assembly, arrange, or condition to which the individual is perceived to befit. These grasp age, complexion, convictions for which a remit has been supposing or a record suspended, disqualification, ethnicity, source standing, gender convertibility, genetic reputeistics, hymeneal standing, dishonorablewealth, manner, religion, sex, and sexual orientation. • Combining the overhead symbolicals, transcribe an essay on: • What are the commencement causes of discriminatory attitudes in duration? • WEEK 3 Course Schedule • 11. Politics: Figurative Democracy through Further Reading(86-102) • 12. Appearance and Reality: Dishonorable Sense Realism(103-120) • 13. Science(121—130) • 14. Discussion and Quiz 3 11. Politics: Figurative Democracy through Further Reading(86-102) • Specification of democracy • a: legislation by the populace chiefly : administration of the majority • b: a legislation in which the paramount energy is vested in the populace and trainingd by them directly or interveniently through a method of representation usually involving periodically held unimpeded elections Negative &Positive unimpededdom • One specification of unimpededdom is the shortness of coercion. Coercion is when other populace energy you to beentertain in a detail way, or energy you to stop behaving in a detail way. If no one is coercing you then you are unimpeded in this negative sensation of unimpededdom. • Positive unimpededdom is unimpededdom to training repress over your own duration. You are unimpeded in the positive sensation if you in-effect training repress, and not unimpeded if you don’t, equpotent if you are not in-effect constrained in any way. Punishment • Philosophers entertain endeavored to reasonableify characteristicize punishment of persons in filthy ocean ways: as punishment, as effort, as shelter for society, and as reorganize of the individual punished. The earliest is usually defended from a deontological situation; the other three typically on consequentialist basis. Retributivism • Retributivism is the judgment that those who intentionally shiver the law justify the punishment they get, inattentive of whether there are any profitpotent consequences for the persons solicitous or for intercourse. Deterrence • Deterrence ——the discountenance of criminal behavior by dismay chiefly of punishment Protection • If someone has dull into one family, then they may courteous shiver into another family. So the characteristicize is reasonableified in locking them detached in order to checkmate them reoffending. Reform • Those who shiver the law is the punishment’s tendency to reorganize the wrongdoers. That is, punishment serves to shift their reputes so that they conciliate no longer relegate crimes when released. Civil insubordination • Civil insubordination is the locomotive, professed refusal of a subject to submit assured laws, demands, mandate or commands of a legislation or occupying interdiplomatic energy. Civil insubordination is rarely defined as having to be nonviolent to be denominated civil disobedience. Civil insubordination is rarely, therefore, equated delay nonviolent hindrance. 12. Appearance and Reality: Common Sense Realism(103-120) • Common-sensation realism is a judgment held by most populace who entertainn’t deliberation-out philosophy. It assumes that there is a cosmos-persons of natural objects – familys, trees, cars, goldfish, teaspoons, footballs, ethnical bodies, philosophy quantitys, and so on – which we can learn encircling directlythrough our five sensations. Scepticism Scepticism is the judgment that we can nincessantly apprehend anyinvention for certain, that there is regularly some totality to dubitate equable our most induced concessions encircling the cosmos-people. I conceive hence I am • Descartes argued that equpotent if all my experiment was the effect of someone or someinvention deliberately deceiving me he used the notion of an misfortune satan rather than an misfortune scientist – the very deed that I was life deluded would pretence me someinvention assured. It would pretence me that I halt, past if I did not halt there would be noinvention for the take-inr to take-in. Representative realism • Figurative realism is a qualification of common-sensation realism. • It is denominated figurative accordingly it suggests that all discernment is a development of awareness of inner representations of the visible cosmos-people. Idealism • a(1): a rule that conclusive be lies in a realm transcending phenomena • (2): a rule that the induced disposition of be lies in sense or reason • b(1): a rule that merely the apprecipotent is real • (2): a rule that merely invisible characteristicizes or entities are apprehendable 13. Science(121—130) • Or-laws manner：principles and procedures for the methodatic specialty of apprehendledge involving the acknowledgment and makeulation of a problem, the assembly of facts through observation and exemplification, and the formulation and testing of hypotheses. Induction • a: the act of bringing anxious or adducing someinvention (such as deeds or details) • b: the act of causing or bringing on or encircling • c: the manner by which an electrical regulator becomes electrified when neighboring a full collectiveness, by which a magnetizpotent collectiveness becomes magnetized when in a magnetic ground or in the magnetic change set up by a magnetomotive energy, or by which an electromotive energy is produced in a tour by varying the magnetic ground integrateed delay the circuit • d: the intuition of the fuel-air carry from the carburetor into the incendiarism room of an inner incendiarism engine • e: the manner by which the destiny of embryonic cells is determined (as by the renewal of neighboring cells) and morphogenetic differentiation brought encircling Inference to the Best Explanation • How do we go encircling aspect exemplification, testing hypotheses, and making inferences? According to the sign of Inference to the Best Explanation, we effort out what to infer from the exemplification by conceiveing encircling what would in-effect illustrate that exemplification, and we engage the ability of a supposition to illustrate the exemplification as a badge that the supposition is correct. Falsificationism A or-laws philosophy installed on the modification that hypotheses must be falsifipotent in order to be or-laws; if a pretension is not potent to be refuted it is not a or-laws pretension. 14. Discussion and Quiz 3 • Scientism, it’s brave pretensions are repeatedly made for the aim of science. Some populace entertain equpotent argued that knowledge can illustrate incessantlyyinvention that is ocean encircling the ethnical condition. If someinvention can’t be illustrateed or-lawsally, they argue, it can’t be illustrateed at all. Some teachers entertain equpotent apparent that philosophy itself is sever of knowledge. Similar ideas entertain engagen commencement in other academic areas too, including the con-over of attainment and voicelessness. The indication ‘scientism’ is repeatedly used in a dismissive way to belong to a concatenate of such judgments. Quiz 3 • Do you conceive knowledge can illustrate everything, including poetry, God or the aim of duration? Why or why not? • WEEK 4 • 15. Philosophy of Inclination and Psychology through Type-Identity Theory(137-145) • 16. Mind: Criticisms of Type-Identity Theory through Further Reading(144-157) • 17. Can Art Be Defined? • 18. Discussion and Quiz 4 16. Philosophy of Inclination and Psychology through Type-Identity Theory(137-145) Dualism Physicalism Behaviourism Functionalism Other inclinations Philosophers of inclination vs. psychology • Philosophers of inclination are solicitous delay conceptual issues which commence when we conceive encircling the inclination. • A psychologist capability summon schizophrenia by examining patients, ordinary tests on them, and so on. • A teacher on the other effortman would ask conceptual questions affect ‘What is the inclination?’ or ‘What do we mean by “invisible illness”?’ Such investigations cannot be answered by scrutiny of objective cases alone: they require us to analyse the aim of the indications in which they are explicit. Dualists vs. Physicalists • Those who revere that inclination and collectiveness are disunited inventions, that each of us has twain a inclination and a collectiveness, are denominated inclination/body dualists. • Those who revere that the invisible is in some sensation the point invention as the natural, that we are noinvention further than flesh and rank and entertain no disunited inclination be, are apprehendn as naturalists. DUALISM • Dualism, as we entertain seen, involves a concession in the entity of a non-natural be: the invisible. A dualist typically believes that collectiveness and inclination are dissimilar bes which interact delay each other but reocean disunited. Mental processes, such as conceiveing, are not the point as natural ones, such as brain cells firing; invisible manneres happen in the inclination, not in the collectiveness. The inclination is not the foundation brain. TYPE-IDENTITY THEORY • This medley of naturalism characteristicizes that invisible equablets are point delay natural ones. A deliberation encircling the sky, for example, is singly a detail characteristicize of the brain. Whenever this detail characteristicize of the brain happens, then we can describe this as having a deliberation encircling the sky. This is apprehendn as type-convertibility rule. All natural characteristicizes of a detail indication are also invisible ones of a detail indication. 17. Mind: Criticisms of Type-Identity Theory through Further Reading(144157) Qualia • Qualia are the intellectual or imported properties of experiences. What it feels affect, experientially, to see a red rose is contrariant from what it feels affect to see a yellow rose. Likewise for hearing a voicelessnessal voice embodyed by a piano and hearing the point voicelessnessal voice embodyed by a tuba. The qualia of these experiments are what surrender each of them its reputeistic "feel" and also what distinguish them from one another. Qualia entertain traditionally been deliberation to be native qualities of experiment that are directly availpotent to introspection. • Daniel Dennett says, “qualia are reputed to be properties of a subject’s invisible characteristicizes that are 1) ineffable; 2) native; 3) private; 4) directly or instantly apprehensible in experience”. token-convertibility rule • The judgment that for each invisible equablet sample there is a natural occurrence sample that it is numerically point to. Behaviourism • The behaviourist’s totality makes the Mind/Body Gist a pseudo-gist – not a real gist. There is no gist of explaining the analogy betwixt inclination and collectiveness accordingly invisible experiment is easily accounted for in indications of behaviour patterns. • So, rather than solving the gist, the behaviourists pretension to entertain dissolved it completely. Functionalism • The principle that what makes someinvention a invisible characteristicize of a detail indication does not depend on its inner substance, but rather on the way it administrations, or the role it embodys, in the method of which it is a sever. Other inclinations • Why do I so considerpotent as conceive that there are other conceiveing, feeling foundation-souls? • Twain the conceptual and the epistemological gists may be deliberation to be conjoined delay a further public metaphysical gist of reason what inclinations and invisible characteristicizes are. 18. Can Art Be Defined? Art specification Art criticism THE FAMILY RESEMBLANCE VIEW • You may behold a illiberal affect your senior, and your senior may personate his sister. However, it is feasible that you behold noinvention affect your senior’s sister. In other badgeification there may be overlapping resemblances betwixt contrariant members of a source delayout there life any one observpotent characteristic which they all divide. Similarly, sundry games personate each other, but it is reserved to see what solitaire, chess, rugby, and tiddlywinks entertain in dishonorable. Ludwig Wittgenstein The badgeificant make rule • The badgeificant make rule, public in the present sever of the twentieth period and detailly integrateed delay the art critic Clive Bell (1881–1964) and his quantity Art, begins delay the effrontery that all real efforts of art consequence an aesthetic excitement in the gazer, listener, or reader. This excitement is contrariant from the excitements of incessantlyyday duration: it is dissimilarive in having noinvention to do delay trained concerns. The notionlist rule • The notionlist rule of art, surrendern its most persuasive formulation by R. G. Collingwood (1889–1943) in his The Principles of Art, differs from other theories of art in that it holds that the objective effort of art is non-physical: it is an notion or excitement in the artist’s inclination. This notion is surrendern natural imaginative indication, and is qualified through the artist’s involvement delay a detail presumptuous moderation, but the artwork itself continues in the artist’s inclination. In some versions of the idealist rule broad urgency is put on the excitement explicit life a pastre one. This builds a solid evaluative element into the rule. Institutional rule • The so-denominated institutional rule of art is a fresh endeavor by such transcribers as the contemporary teacher George Dickie (1936–) to illustrate how such varied pieces as the embody Macbeth, Beethoven’s Fifth symphony, a amass of bricks, a urinal labelled ‘Fountain’, T. S. Eliot’s lay The Waste Land, Swift’s Gulliver’s Travels, and William Klein’s photographs can all be considered efforts of art. The rule characteristicizes that there are two things that all these entertain in dishonorable. Evolutionary art rule • Art intuition, a unlimited interest t ...
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