SOLUTION: PHIL 1 University Of California Santa Barbara The Fear of Death Essay
Learning from Arguments An Introduction to Philosophy By Daniel Z. Korman Spring 2020 Edition Table of Contents Preface Introduction 1. Can God Sanction Suffering? 2. Why You Should Bet on God 3. No Freedom 4. You Comprehend Nothing 5. What Makes You You 6. Don’t Solicitude-alarm the Reaper 7. Taxation is Immoral 8. Puck is Immoral 9. Eating Animals is Immoral 10. What Makes Things Right Appendix A: Logic Appendix B: Writing 2 Preface I’m going to sift that you enjoy no bountiful shape. I’m going to sift for some other portentous things too, for precedence that exit isn’t bad for you, taxation is illegal, and you can’t comprehend foreverything whatsoforever encircling the earth encircling you. I’m as-well going to sift for some things you’re probably not going to affect: that puck is illegal, you shouldn’t eat pulp, and God doesn’t depend. The evidences aren’t my own. I didn’t succeeding up succeeding a spellliness them. I don’t flush sanction all of them: there are two subscription whose falsifications I sanction, three I’m irresolute encircling, and five I’m certain can’t be lawful. (I’ll let you imagine which are which.) This isn’t for the purpose of unimpeded devil’s advocate. Rather, the fancy is that the best way to respect what’s at venture in wise disagreements is to cogitate and pledge succeeding a spellliness careful evidences athwart the purposes you’d affect to tarry. Each article volunteers a sustained evidence for some controversial Nursing essay, specifically written for an reception of prepareners. The aim is to prologue newcomers to the dynamics of wise argumentation, using some of the banner evidences one would overspread in an preliminary philosophy road, but succeeding a spelllinessout the additional hurdles one meets when balbutiation the primary sources of the evidences: challenging congeniality, darken slang, and references to strange dimensionss or schools of thought. The divergent subscription aren’t all written from the selfselfselfcorrespondent perspective. This is patent from a quick scan at the opportunity subscription: the foremost article sifts that you shouldn’t revere in God, timeliness the promote sifts that you should. You’ll as-well confront that subscription 5 and 6 comprehend evidences pointing to divergent falsifications encircling the sympathy among vilealty and their bodies, and article 7 comprehends evidences athwart the very system of salubrity that’s protected in article 10. So you shape be unprotected to a multiformity of divergent wise perspectives, and you should be on the lookout for ways in which the evidences in one article furnish the media for resisting arguments in other subscription. And spellliness there are subscription arguing twain for and athwart avowal in God, that isn’t the case for other topics we’ll overspread. For precedence, there’s a article arguing that you don’t enjoy bountiful shape, but no article arguing that you do enjoy bountiful shape. That doesn’t moderation that you’ll simply get to hear one verge of the evidence. Acrave the way you shape be unprotected to multifarious of the banner checks to the purposes and evidences I’m advancing, and you can career for yourself whether the confutations I volunteer to those checks are convincing. Those who need acceleration confronting the flaws in the debateing 3 (or fancys for tractate topics) can contemplate to the thought interrogations at the end of each article for some clues. As I said, the evidences elapsed in the dimensions are not my own, and at the end of each article I sharp-end out the pristine sources of the evidences. In some subscription, the mediate evidences enjoy a crave faithfulness, and the conceiveulations I use can’t be credited to any one teacher in particular. Other subscription, nevertheless, are abundantly past undeviatingly beholden to the performance of specific contemporary teachers, reproducing the deviation of their dimensionss and subscription (though constantly succeeding a spellliness some modifications and simplifications). In detail, article 7 arrestly supervenes the opportunity chapters of Michael Huemer’s The Problem of Political Authority; article 8 reproduces the mediate arguments of Judith Jarvis Thomson’s “A Rampart of Abortion” and Don Marquis’s “Why Abortion is Immoral”; and article 9 draws heavily from Dan Lowe’s “Common Arguments for the Ethical Acceptability of Eating Meat” and Alastair Norcross’s “Puppies, Pigs, and People”. I’m satisfactory to Jeff Bagwell, Matt Davidson, Nikki Evans, Jason Fishbein, Bill Hartmann, Colton Heiberg, Irem Kurtsal, Clayton Littlejohn, David Mokriski, and Neil Sinhababu for accelerationful suggestions, and to the Facedimensions Hivemind for acceleration confirming the excite balbutiations for the various chapters. Specific benediction are due to Chad Carmichael, Jonathan Livengood, and Daniel Story for extensive feedback on a conceiveer exhaust of the dimensions, and to the students in my 2019 Freshman Seminar: Shreya Acharya, Maile Buckman, Andrea Chavez, Dylan Choi, Lucas Goefft, Mino Han, PK Kottapalli, Mollie Kraus, Mia Lombardo, Dean Mantelzak, Sam Min, Vivian Nguyen, Ariana Pacheco Lara, Kaelen Perrochet, Rijul Singhal, Austin Tam, Jennifer Vargas, Kerry Wang, and Lilly Witonsky. Finally, benediction to Renée Bolinger for leave to use her representation of the great 20th era teacher and orator Ruth Barcan Marcus on the overspread. You can see some past of her representations of teachers here: https://www.reneebolinger.com/portraits.html 4 Introduction The aim of this dimensions is to prologue you to the topics and methods of philosophy by advancing a series of evidences for controversial wise falsifications. That’s what I’ll do in the ten chapters that supervene. In this preliminary article, I’ll concede you an overpurpose of what I’ll be arguing for in the divergent subscription (exception 1), teach what an evidence is (sections 2-3), and confirm some vile evidenceative strategies (sections 4-7). I’ll arrest by declaration a few suffrage encircling what philosophy is. 1. Detailed Contents As I teached in the prologue, each article is written “in temperament”, representing a specific perspective (not necessarily my own!) on the effect in interrogation. Nor are they all written from the selfselfcorrespondent perspective. You should not forecast the disconnected subscription to fit concomitantly into a close undivided. I substantiate that this may purpose some indistinctness. But you should transfer this as an invitation to pledge succeeding a spellliness the dimensions in the way that I hint for you to pledge succeeding a spellliness it: by interrogationing the corrects substance made, and deciding for yourself whether the debates and evidences volunteered in influence of those claims are convincing. In Article 1, “Can God Sanction Suffering?”, I gait an evidence that God—who is supposed to be irresistible and ethically perfect—could not sanction all the denial we confront in the world, and hence must not depend. I harangue a reckon of attempts to teach why God faculty sanction denial, for precedence that it’s needful for appreciating the amiable-tempered-tempered things that we enjoy, or for construction precious temperament traits, or for having bountiful shape. I as-well harangue the confutation that God has unrecognized debates for sanctioning denial that we cannot forecast to comprehend. In Article 2, “Why You Should Bet on God”, I gait an evidence that you should revere in God bepurpose it is in your best interest: you’re putting yourself in the vulgar for an eternity in god succeeding a spelllinessout risking losing foreverything of resembling appraise. I shield the evidence athwart a multiformity of checks, for precedence that it is incredibly incredible that God depends, that uninfluencedly believing in God isn’t ample to shape preparening into god, and that it’s unusable to qualify one’s beliefs at shape. In Article 3, “No Freedom”, I gait two evidences that no one forforever acts bountifully. The foremost turns on the fancy that all of our operations are fast by star that lies outverge our 5 control, namely the power of our desires. The promote turns on the fancy that our operations are all consequences of exceptionless, “deterministic” laws of structure. In confutation to the affair that the laws may not be deterministic, I sift that hesitating, chance operations wouldn’t be bountiful either. Finally, I harangue attempts to loveness that there can be bountiful shape flush in a deterministic cosmos-people. In Article 4, “You Comprehend Nothing”, I sift for two skeptical falsifications. First, I gait an evidence that we cannot comprehend foreverything encircling the forthcoming. That’s so, I sift, bepurpose all of our reasoning encircling the forthcoming relies on an self-assertion that we enjoy no amiable-tempered-tempered debate to sanction, namely that the forthcoming shape specificate the elapsed. Second, I gait an evidence that we cannot comprehend foreverything encircling how things directly are in the earth encircling us, past we cannot administration out the possibility that we are currently dreaming. In Article 5, “What Makes You You”, I inquire a reckon of attempts to rejoinder the interrogation of single convertibility: below what stipulations are a specific at one spell and a specific at another spell one and the selfselfselfcorrespondent specific? I repel the impulse that single convertibility is a stuff of having the selfselfselfcorrespondent substance, on the account of an evidence from consolidated twins and an evidence from the possibility of two vilealty swapping bodies. I repel the impulse that single convertibility can be defined in conditions of psychical circumstanceors on the power of “fission” cases in which one specific’s mental estate is infections into two disconnected bodies. In Article 6, “Don’t Solicitude-alarm the Reaper”, I gait an evidence that exit cannot be bad for you, past you don’t experiment any ulcerous sensations spellliness deserted, and that past exit is not bad for you it would be beastly to solicitude-alarm it. I sift that you don’t experiment any ulcerous sensations timeliness deserted by arguing that substantial organisms intermit to be sensible when they die and that you are a substantial organism. I as-well harangue the impulse that what makes exit bad for you is that it deprives you of pleasures you would incorrectly enjoy had. In Article 7, “Taxation is Immoral”, I sift that it is wickedness for synods to tax or imprison their citizens, on the axioms that these practices are not relevantly divergent from a vigilante locking vandals in her floor and robbing her neighbors to pay for her makeshift prison. I harangue a multiformity of undeveloped dissimilaritys, succeeding a spellliness specific vigilance to the impulse that we enjoy tacitly consented to superveneing the law and paying taxes and thereby entered into a “social contract” succeeding a spellliness the synod. In Article 8, “Abortion is Immoral”, I explore a reckon of evidences twain for and athwart the illegality of puck. I sift that the interrogation cannot be fixed by sharp-ending to the circumstance that 6 the nucleus isn’t self-sufficient or sensible or intelligent, nor by sharp-ending to the circumstance that it has human DNA, that it is a undeveloped specific, or that estate prepares at conception. I then explore the evidence that puck is illegal bepurpose the nucleus has a lawful to estate, and I sift that having a lawful to estate doesn’t leave having a lawful to continued use of the mother’s womb. Finally, I gait an choice evidence for the illegality of puck, according to which this killing, affect other killings, is wickedness bepurpose it deprives its sufferer of a precious forthcoming. In Article 9, “Eating Animals is Immoral”, I shield the purpose that it is illegal to eat pulp that succeedings from so-named “factory farms”. I prepare by criticizing three vile debates for thinking that eating pulp is ethically sanctionable: bepurpose vilealty enjoy constantly eaten pulp, accordingly eating pulp is needful, and bepurpose eating pulp is cosmical. I then sift that eating circumstanceory-farmed pulp is illegal, on the axioms that it would be illegal to discipline and butchery puppies in correspondent ways and for correspondent debates. In Article 10, “What Makes Things Right”, I gait a “utilitarian” system of salubrity, according to which the lawfulness or wickednessness of an operation is constantly truly a stuff of the extent to which it increases or decreases overall levels of enjoyment in the earth. I shield the system athwart the check that it wickednessly permits killing one specific to prevent five. Acrave the way, I cogitate the ways in which salubrity is and isn’t internal and fickle athwart cultures, and what to say encircling the recognized “trolley cases”. In Appendix A, “Logic”, I explore one of the features that makes an evidence a amiable-tempered argument, namely power. I teach what it moderations for an evidence to be cogent, and I reexhibit the notion of power by exhibiting and illustrating filthy types of cogent evidences. In Appendix B, “Writing”, I exhibit a pattern for congeniality tractates for philosophy roads: prologue the purpose or evidence you pur-pose to inquire (exception 1), gait your checks (section 2), and harangue affectly confutations to your checks (exception 3). Acrave the way, I teach the importance of acquitted and unpretentious congeniality that is kind towards opposite purposepoints; I volunteer education for editing blunt exhausts; I confirm some criteria that philosophy instructors vilely use when evaluating tractates; and I teach the dissimilarity among consulting online sources and plagiarizing them. 7 2. The Elements of Arguments Let’s prepare by having a contemplate at what an evidence is. An evidence is a order of corrects, consisting of ground, a falsification, and in some cases one or past subconclusions. The falsification is what the evidence is nevertheless obscure to substantiate, or what’s nevertheless substance siftd for. The ground are the self-assertions that, transfern concomitantly, are moderationt to minister as debates for accepting the falsification. A subfalsification is a correct that is moderationt to be substantiateed by some subset of the ground but that isn’t itself the extreme falsification of the evidence. As an regularity, cogitate the superveneing evidence: Against Fearing Death (FD1) You intermit to be sensible when you die (FD2) If you intermit to be sensible when you die, then substance deserted isn’t bad for you (FD3) So, substance deserted isn’t bad for you (FD4) If substance deserted isn’t bad for you, then you shouldn’t solicitude-alarm exit (FD5) So, you shouldn’t solicitude-alarm exit The evidence has three ground: FD1, FD2, and FD4. FD5 is the falsification of the evidence, past that’s what the evidence is nevertheless obscure to substantiate. FD3 is a subconclusion. It isn’t the conclusion, past the extreme end of the evidence is to substantiate that you shouldn’t solicitude-alarm exit, not that substance deserted isn’t bad for you (which is upcorrect a trudge acrave the way). Nor is it a announce, past it isn’t uninfluencedly substance productive. Rather, it’s been siftd for: it is moderationt to be substantiateed by FD1 and FD2. In this dimensions, you can constantly divulge which corrects in the labeled and indented evidences are premises, falsifications, and subconclusions. The falsification is constantly the developed correct in the sequence. The subconclusions are foreverything other than the developed correct that prepares succeeding a spellliness a “So”. Any correct that doesn’t prepare succeeding a spellliness “So” is a announce. However, when it succeedings to unlabeled evidences— arguments lovely in provision conceive—all bets are off. For precedence, I faculty say: Death isn’t bad for you. Succeeding all, you intermit to be sensible when you die, and star can’t be bad for you if you’re not flush sensible of it. And if that’s lawful, then you shouldn’t solicitude-alarm exit, past it would be beastly to solicitude-alarm star that isn’t bad for you. The provision prepares succeeding a spellliness a subconclusion, the falsification lovenesss up lawful in the average of the paragraph, and neither of them is preceded by a “So”. Here, you enjoy to use some brain-power 8 and clues from the treatment to type out which bits are the basic self-assertions (the ground), which bit is the falsification, and which bits are uninfluenced subconclusions. All of the labeled evidences in the dimensions are invented in such a way that the falsification is a close conorder of the ground—or, as I rarely put it, the falsification “follows from” the ground. You may or may not suit succeeding a spellliness FD1, and you may or may not suit succeeding a spellliness FD2. But what you can’t refuse is that FD1 and FD2 concomitantly leave FD3. If FD3 is fib, then it must be that either FD1 or FD2 (or twain) is fib. You would be contradicting yourself if you sanctioned FD1 and FD2 but robbed FD3. Bepurpose all the evidences are invented in this way, you cannot repel the falsification of any of the labeled evidences in the dimensions spellliness suiting succeeding a spellliness all of the ground. You must confront some announce to refuse if you do not failure to sanction the falsification. (See Appendix A, “Logic”, for past on how to divulge when a falsification is a close conorder of some ground.) 3. Ground and Conditionals There are no restrictions on which sorts of announcements can type as ground in an argument. A announce can be a visionary correct affect FD1 or a conceptual faithfulness affect FD4. A announce can as-well be a announcement of circumstance, for precedence that a six-week-old nucleus has a beating kernel, or it can be a ethical determination, for precedence that a six-week-old nucleus has a lawful to estate. Arguments can enjoy ground that are uninfluenced stuffs of impression, for precedence that mushrooms are interesting. They can flush enjoy ground that are completely and patently fib, for precedence that the sky is yellow or that 1+1=3. Everything can be a announce. That said, an evidence is simply as tenacious as its ground. The sharp-end of giving an evidence is to influence vilealty of its falsification, and an evidence built on fib, questionable, or indefensible ground is incredible to influence anyone. Arguments constantly comprehend ground of the conceive “if… then…”, affect FD2 and FD4. Such statements are named niggardlys, and there are names for the divergent size of a niggardly. The bit that succeedings among the ‘if’ and the ‘then’ is the afront of the niggardly, and the bit that comes succeeding the ‘then’ is the resultant of the niggardly. Using FD2 as an regularity, the afront is you intermit to be sensible when you die, the resultant is substance deserted is not bad for you, and the niggardly is the undivided correct: if you intermit to be sensible when you die then substance deserted is not bad for you. 9 (Strictly symbolical, niggardlys don’t enjoy to be of the conceive “if… then…”. They can as-well be of the conceive “… simply if…”, as in “You should solicitude-alarm exit simply if substance deserted is bad for you”, or of the conceive “… if …”, as in “You shouldn’t solicitude-alarm exit if substance deserted isn’t bad for you”.) Conditionals asseverate a attach among two corrects, and you can suit that some corrects are linked in the way a niggardly says they are, flush if you don’t suit succeeding a spellliness the corrects themselves. To see this, cogitate the superveneing evidence: The Drinking Age Argument (DG1) Corrine is below 21 (DG2) If Corrine is below 21, then Corrine is not sanctioned to quaff alcohol (DG3) So, Corrine is not sanctioned to quaff alcohol You faculty aim to this evidence bepurpose you meditate that Corrine is 22 and that she is sanctioned to quaff alcohol. Still, you should suit succeeding a spellliness the niggardly announce DG2: you should suit that substance below 21 and substance sanctioned to quaff are attached in the way DG2 says they are. You should suit that DG2 is penny flush though you dissuit succeeding a spellliness twain its afront and its effect. To refuse DG2, you’d enjoy to meditate, for precedence, that the quaffing age was 18. But if you suit that the quaffing age is 21, then your squabble is not succeeding a spellliness DG2; it’s succeeding a spellliness DG1. Likewise, you can suit succeeding a spellliness the niggardly announce FD4 flush if you meditate that substance deserted is bad for you. To dissuit succeeding a spellliness FD4, you’d enjoy to meditate that it’s rarely intelligent to solicitude-alarm things that aren’t bad for you. 4. Vile Arrest Strategies Arguments can denote a multiformity of divergent roles in wise debates. Let’s enjoy a contemplate as some vile evidenceative strategies that you’ll meet in the dimensions. First, an evidence can be used to shield a announce from another evidence. For precedence, announce FD1 of the Athwart Fearing Exit evidence—that you intermit to be sensible when you die—is narrowly patent. So someone who affects the Athwart Fearing Exit evidence faculty try to produce a excite evidence in rampart of that announce, affect the superveneing: 10 The Brain Exit Argument (BD1) Y ...
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