SOLUTION: Saint Xavier University Jewish Religion Holocaust An Ethical Reflection Paper
Disclaimer: These are my notes. I use them to confer me a recognition of what I am education for the day and how to portio up symbolical. If it does not reach recognition to you—or you promote an OUTLINE manner (but I affect a narrative) – LET ME KNOW! Week 12: Tuesday, March 31st Assigned Reading: most significant bolded - Fishbane: Chapter 4 (pp 114-132) - PDFs are modifyed on CANVAS: o The Jew in the New-fashioned World, “A Society for the Preservation of the Jewish Crowd (1819),” “The Society for the Humanization and Science of the Jews Statutes (1822),” and “A Society to Further Jewish Integration (1822).” o Selection from Mendelssohn, Jerusalem We are preliminary a hop now to the New-fashioned Period. Which for us balances: 1580s1940s (or 16th-20th seniority). Geographically: We are in Europe – delay countries you obtain now identify! Population of Jews in Europe: By the 1700s thither are 1 darling Jews (that is a low number, but the community obsolete abundant members behind the Christian Expulsion of 13th seniority – we are not envelope that). By the 1930s thither obtain be 17 darling Jews Vocabulary: Fishbane has a glossary in the end delay some of this! o Ashkenazi o Sephardic o Tradition o Assimilation o Acculturation o Integration o Migration o Jewish Diaspora (Galut – )גלותhad to truckle in some hebrew o Modernity So now we get end to what we own been aiming internal all semester—Is Judaism a faith (Shomer Mitzvot)? An ethnicity (birth/culture)? Both? And conjecture what—YOU CAN’T ANSWER! As non-Jews we are not in a assign to confront or produce an tally. Rather, as learners of Judaism, our role is to imply the investigation 1 and further significantly --why it is a investigation! That is what we are going to do for the next two weeks. Ready?? Our Main Investigation for the Day: How can Jews endowation in Diaspora (extend secret all balance the cosmos-people, speaking unanalogous phraseologys, balbutiation and substance unguarded to unanalogous humanizations) stationary detain a SINGULAR JEWISH IDENTITY? First things primary: What do we balance by a curious convertibility? Does any ordain own one? Let’s Discuss! Now Getting Specifically Jewish: Incline to Fishbane p. 114 The Jewish New-fashioned cosmos-crowd is characterized by research this investigation: 1. Resist the rule of legend and consign yourself to the capaciousr cosmos-crowd environing you 2. Resist the new conceptions of new-fashionedity as threats to legendal truths and establishs. How do we prepare to trade delay these investigations? We ask insignificant ones primary! Fishbane is hither to help! Little Questions: 3 total 1. Choose to either Resist or Incorporate the surrounding army countries humanization (e.g. understand the army country’s phraseology, interpret their bulks, newspapers etc…). 2. Ask and Decide whether the other humanization is smooth accordant delay Judaism (i.e. resumption some army countries own attempted to massacre Jews in the past!) 3. Can Jews interpret and be ruled by other texts. Can Jews provoke aggravate the Torah and and rabbinic examine? In other expression: can you decentralize the torah? And at-last one of the most tangled investigations according to Fishbane becomes: Should one bung a Jew and in what way? The aggravate investigations are going to siege era to misarrange. So let’s argue! 2 Jewish by Humanization or Religion: Use our vocabulary expression to follow: Our nucleus when argueing Jews in New-fashioned Times obtain be capaciously through the eyes of the Ashkenazi Jews. Thither are two disjoined casts of Ashkenazi Jew. One that subsists in Central/Western Europe and the other that subsists in Eastern Europe. These two powerfulally unanalogous experiences are going to reach up for the disquisition of this collocate exhortation. Are you Jewish as a Culture? Or are you Jewish by Religion? If you bung practicing the legend—are you stationary attended a Jew? This obtain be familiar profusely throughout the New-fashioned era in abundant unanalogous establishats. Now this is not the primary era we’ve seen the Jews modify to a new environment. All through the Average Ages, empires and rulers from unanalogous regions came and went. The Jews modify when they obsolete their pavilion. They became a crowd extend environing Mesopotamia (rather than concentrated in either Egypt or Canaan – as in the era of Abraham). How did they survive—anyone? ANYONE? Who did they contemplate to detain them bonded smooth when they were naturally secret? REMEMBER NO INTERNET—NO TWITTER. Used: o Bible and Rabbi’s as the copy on the bible to detain them all on the identical page and a portio of the identical ordain. o That kept the Jews from straying from converting etc… Remember the Kararites! Adapting is not new to them. But what is new is the coerce the Jews now own to either modify or not modify on their own conditions. They are making the decision! The dissonance shapeless Ashkenazi Jews : How did this get polarized and why? Is the dissonance shapeless Legend and Acculturation (resumption dissonance shapeless acculturation and assimilation) Let’s prepare in Central/Western Europe: We are going to juxtapose two main figures from each verge. Legend vs. Acculturation. Let’s do this by using prominent Jewish figures and see what they own to say: On the Verge of Tradition: Rabbi Elijah Gaon o We conclude to Vilna (now Vilnius) in Lithuania (Fishbane p. 115-118). Where we converge a very illustrious rabbi who prepares to sonorous the whole of Jews in modernity. Rabbi Elijah ben Solomon besides unreserved as Rabbi Elijah Gaon (recollect that tidings)—was born thither in 1720. He was attended the last great theologian of collocateical rabbinism. And was a intimate devotee in legend and not identify Judaism to fit or modify to alien verbiage. 3 In other expression—he is old initiate and doesn’t omission to appropriate, acculturate or everything rest. His nickname was the Gaon of Vilna Anyone recollect what you interpret environing him? o Quirky o Low textual criticism o High Textual criticism One bulk he wrote was on: Hebrew Grammar. Let’s reunderstanding ourselves of the sundry establishs of Hebrew: First Hebrew is the phraseology of the Jews. But if you resumption thither is further than one cast of Hebrew Because the Jews had to migrate and provoke environing as attendserviceable as they did—their first phraseology had been obsolete and progressive balance the 1,000 years of their creature. Overall we own three disjoined casts of Hebrew: 1. Biblical Hebrew: Biblical Hebrew is the foremost establish. It is the Hebrew of the Bible and most requests. Today when a pious Jew interprets or recites a request they do so in Biblical Hebrew. Biblical Hebrew uses vowels and markings to accent expression. It ceased substance vocal environing 200 c.e. which is AFTER …—2nd Pavilion falling 2. Medieval Hebrew: Besides unreserved as Rashi Hebrew. If you recollect Rashi was the Rabbinic Learner who wrote the commentaries alongverge the Talmud. We are in the late 12th seniority now—so Hebrew has not been vocal for 1,000 years. If I were to ask you what would be disjoined environing Medieval Hebrew what would you say: Arabic and Latin rule. Thither are dissonances in vowels, phraseology, script. Things own progressive owing the verbiage own changed. 3. New-fashioned Hebrew: Further recently, behind the product of the set-forth of Israel. A newer establish of Hebrew has conclude up. Modern Hebrew or Israeli Hebrew. This is the Hebrew vocal and interpret today throughout the cosmos-crowd and in Israel. Modern Hebrew tends to be interpret and written delayout vowels or phraseology (cosmical it is poetry or request). It is the official phraseology of Israel, but has adventitious heavily from European expression all balance the cosmos-crowd (past most Jews migrated to Israel from all balance the cosmos-people). Example: I was taught by a man (Menachem Brinker) who used to compose new Hebrew expression for new-fashioned items. He composed the Hebrew tidings for computer!! He was an portentous special. https://news.uchicago.edu/story/menachem-brinker-hebrewstudies-scholar-and-activist-1935-2016 4 So end to the Vilna of Gaon—he wrote a Hebrew Grammar bulk in the average of all this—and conjecture in what title? MEDIEVAL HEBREW. Why? AND NOW on the SIDE of ACCULTURATION: Gaon of Vilna represents a further legendal rabbinism. But if we provoke westward to Berlin—we obtain confront a further new-fashioned learner of colossal importance: MOSES MENDELSSOHN. Now do you recollect how I emphases Maimonides in the medieval portion of this collocate? Let me do the identical for Mendelssohn—for he was a hugely significant figure in the New-fashioned Jewish History provokement. Basically, if you omission to argue the Modern Jewish Question—it doesn’t get bigger than Moses Mendelssohn. Mendelssohn: p. 118-119 Born in 1729- 1786: He is shapeless the most intimate of Rational Philosophers (Meaning you allot deduce to all your theories and put that aggravate all your other recognitions). and he permitd the examine of nontransmitted subjects for ethical and cultural products. In other expression, Jews did not ordainly own to interpret the Torah, Mishnah, Talmud—they could interpret and be unsupposserviceable by other non-Jewish philosophers—authors etc… THIS WAS A PRETTY CONTROVERSAL colresiduum at a era when Judaism is attempting to survive in Diaspora. If we were to put it into today conditions: grammatical use of the tidings NOT the political use—HE WAS LIBERAL. It’s affect assertion—a cheerful-natured-natured conception is a cheerful-natured-natured conception no subject the humanization it was born out of. So we should interpret it all. Tell me further environing him: What does he attend Judaism? A faith or ethnicity? Does he permit decentralization of the Torah? AT THE SAME TIME: The Enlightenment: 1700s (18th seniority) This era of Mendelssohn’s activity coincided delay a capaciousr era in History determined “The Enlightenment” Does anyone apprehend everything environing this era. For the sake of era – I am going to detain this very short—but the Enlightenment era was a change-of-place that sought to mobilize the rule of deduce in ordain to reform society and gait apprehendledge. It promoted psychological reciprocity and opposed intolerance and abuses in Church and set-forth. Main figures of the Enlightenment may be recognizserviceable to you: VOCABULARY ALERT: Kant, Spinoza, Hume, and our guy Mendelssohn who was secret of the Jewish Enlightenment inadequately unreserved as Haskalah (Jewish Enlightenment) 5 And those men-folks in the Jewish Enlightenment such as Mendelssohn (and later we obtain conference environing Spinoza are determined MASKILIM (or the Enlightened ones)! So do we own all that? If we were to facilitate the colresiduum of these two men: Vilna of Gaon: Everything is in the Torah – it can product-out smooth the most new-fashioned of problems if you contemplate at it suitable. Mendelssohn: Everything is NOT in the Torah—you must use deduce and EMPIRICAL DATA. Do you apprehend what EMPIRICAL is? It is the peel of truth you can discbalance using your recognitions, observations, experiments. WHICH THE TORAH IS NOT. So for Mendelssohn what is the TORAH cheerful-natured-natured for? Let’s contemplate at his most illustrious product: Jerusalem – on CANVAS - What do you reach of those pages? - What is he assertion? - Benevolence? - Religion? - Common vs. Private subjects 6 Week 12: Thursday, April 2nd ONLINE Reading to be familiar today: - Fishbane: Chapter 4 (pp 114-132) - Folder of PDFs are modifyed on myCourses: Interpret and Print for collocate: The Jew in the Modern World, “A Society for the Preservation of the Jewish Crowd (1819),” “The Society for the Humanization and Science of the Jews Statutes (1822),” and “A Society to Further Jewish Integration (1822).” - Selection from Mendelssohn, Jerusalem - GENESIS 12, 15, 17 - Schendlin p. 165-166 Let’s recap and embody our goals affecting onwardGoals for the week: 1. The Types of Judaism depending on Region (Ashkenazi vs Sephardic). Once we provoke aggravate that, we scarcity to shiver down the dissonances shapeless Ashkenazi (setting Sephardic averge for now). 2. The investigation of Jewish Faith vs. Jewish Culture. Using the considerers from our balbutiation, we obtain be exploring the unanalogous aspects of this investigation. How? By putting each considerer through Fishbane’s capacious and 3 smaller investigations GOAL 1: Understand The disjoined cosmos-crowd inspections of Ashkenazi Jews who permanent in unanalogous regions. EAST vs. CENTRAL/WEST. • East: Gaon of Vilna (1720-1797) - Traditionalist - Refuses to appropriate or acculturate - Leaves a solitary - Low/High Criticism • Central: Moses Mendelssohn (1729-1786) - Liberal considerer - Believes in Acculturation - Private vs. Common Life - Set-forth vs. Religion - Haskalah - Maskilim Keep in understanding the conditions! 1. Assimilation: the mode whereby a minoritized ordain sunderially modifys to the customs and attitudes of the ruling humanization and customs. 2. Acculturation: is the vary of cultural features that developments when ordains of men-folks having unanalogous humanizations conclude into regular primary-hand contact; the first cultural patterns of either or twain ordains may be altered, but the ordains bung distinct. It is manageserviceable to jumble Assimilation delay Acculturation. Repeatedly we ordainly reciprocity the two. But thither is a dissonance, especially when argueing Jewish integration (you obtain confront as we go on). Some Jews in sure portios of Europe horizontal out appropriate. Meaning they prepare to expose their Jewishness and opt for a further European activitytitle (that would essentially reach them what peel of Jews?). This is most noble shapeless Central/Western Ashkenazi Jews (i.e. Germany, France etc…). While acculturation is not so powerful. It assumes you are unsupposserviceable by your environment, and you may inoculate sure things into your own legends—but you stationary detain the candor of your abode abode. This is best represented, at the soundness, delay Mendelssohn, who opted to retain main portios of his Jewishness (orderly not in common). Hither we confront most Jews inoculate sure aspects of European humanization ordainly to product and survive, but for-the-most-sunder they detain substance Jewish by foundation in solely Jewish communities and praying etc… in the customary manner. GOAL #2 Understanding what it balances to say Judaism is Humanization and/or Religion: We are approaching this capacious investigation using Fishbane’s investigations and Goal #1. Looking at thinkers and research Fishbane’s three insignificant investigations in ordain to get to the big one. WHAT ARE THE LITTLE QUESTIONS? WHAT IS THE BIG ONE? For the most portio, our East European considerers obtain lean constant to their old cosmos-crowd and legends. In a legendal cosmos-peopleview, Judaism has to be what? A faith/humanization or …. They obtain not appropriate on their own delay ease—most obtain be done by soundness. For the most portio, our Central and West European considerers obtain appropriate or acculturate. So what is the cosmos-peopleinspection hither. MUCH MORE COMPLICATED!! Religion? Culture? We obtain consume a good-natured quantity of era misarrangeing this one. Further into the investigation: Are you Jewish as a Culture? Or are you Jewish by Religion? If you bung practicing the Tradition—are you stationary attended a Jew? This obtain be familiar profusely throughout the New-fashioned era in abundant unanalogous establishats. Ok so that was review—Any Questions??? ASK YOURSELF NOW—IF I WERE TO ADHERE TO GENESIS 12, 15, AND 17—WHAT WOULD I BELIEVE? Moving on… this is going to get a insignificant intricate. I am going to go through it now, but we obtain end this individuality delay a chart (today or tomorrow). Sidebar: This is whither I customaryly bung and conference environing a ordain determined the Hasidim. I consider that would be confusing now. So if it proves available, we obtain enfold end. Otherwise, we obtain jump all questions pertaining to this ordain affecting onward. Everything Below is in Chapter 4 of Fishbane—I am ordainly explaining it in laypersons conditions. More conditions to apprehend: 1. Yeshiva 2. Zion 3. Avodah 4. Aliyah New crowd we obtain cover: 1. Hayyim Nahman Bialik (1873-1934): Yeshiva/Zion 2. R. Abraham Isaac ha-Cohen Kook (1865-1935) Prominent Ashkenazi Leader 3. Abraham Geiger (1810-1874): Liberal-Reestablish Judaism 4. Rabbi Samson Raphael Hirsch (1808-1888): enemy of Geiger – supporters for “notorious pious consciousness” Back to Legend vs. Acculturation: It’s stretched, and although the Gaon of Vilna is determined dejected and ritual by Mendelssohn and followers, the legendal inspection is not going to go down delayout a fight How do we detain each ordain applicserviceable and their missive out. A learner of Vilna endow a perfect path—set-on-foot an college. It producted antecedently, suitable!! Recollect when? (Hint/answer: Initiate of Jamina delay R. Zakki). The Yeshiva is born. A Yeshiva is a Rabbinic College (stationary exists today). One illustrious learner from the Yeshiva Hayyim Nahman Bialik (1873-1934) • wrote poetry lamenting the certainty that Jews had gotten so far off the track of the Torah. • He supporterd everyone yield end to the “homeland” now determined Zion (refers to Jerusalem II Samuel 5:7) and rebuild the TEMPLE. • He is besides credited for earnest the Hebrew phraseology and having it be the Modern Hebrew we apprehend today. Oh boy! Lot’s to misarrange hither. Contemplate at the tidings you probably apprehend—ZION! What do you consider this obtain incline into? This is an incredibly ready provoke. If Gaon had to subsist in a extent delay no windows and refused to interact delay Europeans owing that is the solely way to be Religiously and Culturally a Jew—then F- that, ordainly go end to Jerusalem! Now it’s your once. Bialik provokes to Israel: ALIYAH • He smoothtually emigrated from Russia to Israel. He supporterd that all Jews provoke and be dedicated to the use and product of the set-forth • The promise AVODAH (which used to balance shrinal ‘service’ as in pavilion/Scriptural product [study]). Now is substance gathered to balance natural drudge or use to the place of Zion (Israel). • READ POEM https://www.poetryinternational.org/pi/poem/3351/auto/0/0/ChaimNachman-Bialik/RETURN/en/tile A TWIST! Retrieval of the abodeplace was now in the products. Jews who emigrated to Israel were now out of Diaspora. But oddly the provoke wasn’t largely a pious one. In certainty, most provoked further out of notorious lordliness. Unanalogous Jews delay unanalogous points of inspections and deduces yield. To reach recognition of the unanalogous inspectionpoints, leadership in the Place of Israel is established: R. Abraham Isaac ha-Cohen Kook (1865-1935): • Russian Born • Determined the Ashkenazi prominent rabbi of the place of Israel. • He repeatedly intervened when the discuss shapeless Secularists and Orthodox Jews got impassioned. Even though he was a legendalist. Kook producted for unity—and the missive he perpetuated was that they were all thither for the affection of Israel, whether it be pious or notorious lordliness. • Aim everyone internal one goal—cultivate the place and develop. Think of a whole that would originate when you own crowd going end for unanalogous deduces— Let’s siege the Sabbath as an copy. Or Hanukkah Meanwhile in Germany…. Above was one suite of Ashkenazi manner discuss– delay an end development that had Jews (both pious and profane) yielding to Israel. Now we provoke in the inconsistent order. We go to a discuss arguing for Jews to appropriate to their European abodes and ooze all references to a yield to Zion: Abraham Geiger (1810-1874): • Frankfurt am Main, GERMANY (stationary in the identical country as Mendelssohn—but unanalogous era era). • Was a proponent of the provokement determined: Liberal-Reestablish Judaism Liberal-Reestablish Judaism: Liberal inspection that Judaism was an evolving pious refinement. It supporters that Jews bung thinking Nationalistically—and set-on-foot considering of Judaism strictly as a RELIGIOUS body. Basically, he attends Judaism to be a faith shapeless other faiths that can subsist anywhere. For copy: If you are Catholic you identify yourself as “Catholic American” or if you subsistd in Italy you would be a “Catholic Italian”—while up until this point no one EVER said “I’m a German Jew” they said “I am a Jew who happens to subsist in Gerabundant (smooth if I was born and rising there).” Geiger supporters substance faithful to the nation of your race and recognizing that as your society. He attended himself a German who was Jewish. He was serviceserviceable to supporter for this owing of Jewish Emancipation of 1871 in France and later in Gerabundant p. 165-166 Schendlin. If we illusion notorious lordliness to our European armys we won’t be surprisingrs in a surprising place anymore—we obtain be emancipated and certain. SIDE NOTE: Does that reach recognition to everyone owing this is tolerably intricate substance? And we can spen ...
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