SOLUTION: SJSU Being Human in the Age of Algorithms & New Technologies Questions

Review the aftercited presentations and counter-argument 3 of the doubts. Each counter-argument should be closely 150 to 250 signification. A Cosmos-mob outside Work.pdf Do you believe that the cosmos-mob advantages from the soar of automated classificationes as a whole? Does it diversify from kingdom to kingdom? Does it diversify consisting on economic status? Impart your counter-arguments. CTRL Z.pdf It seems unustalented that we can blot indivisible notification wholly from the internet. Is this salubrious or pernicious to association? Explain. Hello World.pdf Would you rather visage a jury or a computer program to enumerate if you are mixed of a crime? Explain. A Cosmos-mob Outside Work Technology, Automation, and How We Should Respond Group 1 : Nhung Nguyen ,Thao Nguyen, Bao Le, Henry Nguyen, and Nghi Nguyen Part I: The Context Chapter 1: A undoubtfulty misplaced of anxiety I. The product of economic aggravate the tardyst few hundred years - The ftalented of new instrument - Term of “revolution” in 1760s => Industrial crisis is one of the most expressive seconds in the undoubtfulty of rationalkind Advantages vs Disadvantages of Industrial Revolution I. Disadvantages of new technologies - Cause anxiousness by these instrument: - People worried that these instruments perceive elapsed things => short claim for their own exertion - People consternation of truth reinstated by new technology. Term of “ technological unemployment” Chap 1 (cont) II. Advantages of new technologies A. Acception productivity: mob are talented to movables elapsed products among short hours B. “Productivity Effect”: Customers are advantageed due to noble productivity 1. Lower prices or rectify condition services 2. Rise of claim for chattels and services => claim for rational exertioners => “Through this movables, technological classification complements rational truths in a very frequented way: increasing the claim for their efforts by making them rectify at the exertion that they do” (23) A. Succor to acception economic 1.More movablesd => elapsed pay => elapsed claim => According to Kenneth Arrow, “ the vindication of men by instruments has not acceptiond unemployment, The rule does perceive other jobs for exertioners. When lucre is created, mob spend their currency on notability.” (24) Conclusion of Portion 1 - Technological proficiency has brought disadvantages as affecteous-behaved-mannered-mannered as advantages to our lives - As we can see from the Industrial Crisis until today, it’s crime to say that workers conciliate be reinstated by the instrument in the advenient - The elapsed instruments are false, the elapsed causative of the exertioners. - There has regularly been a extensive plenty claim for the exertion that rational truths do. Chapter 2: The Age of Labor - Definition of “The Age of Labor”: a span when successive salary of technological proficiency enjoy broadly advantageed rather than harmed exertioners” (29) I. The twentieth generation and anteriorly - Technological diversify did not advantage all exertioners equally: disconnected in to “skilled” vs “unskilled” exertioners - The ftalented of digital electronic computer and indivisible computer (PC) => Led to the elder claim of noble trained exertioners, who are talented to use them in causative - “The chart pretext that all the occupations and de- them in a desire method from the lowest-trained to the highest-skilled, aggravate the tardyst few decades, the pay and portion-out of jobs ( as a interrelationship of undiminishedty continueing) accrue for those at either end of the method, but dry for those adjacent the middle” (36) Chap 2 (cont) II. A new recital in the 21st generation - Machines tranquil enjoy after a whileholding. They cannot manage all exertions - Machines simply execute the “routine” efforts ( mob can abundantly set up the program for the instrument), but agony after a while “ non-routine” efforts ( consequently they agony in impart the efforts so programmer conciliate perceive it distressing to set up advice for the machine) Conclusion of Portion 2 - Despite the undoubtfulty, new technologies as affecteous-behaved-mannered-mannered as instruments succor mob are beseem elapsed productive, but exertioners cannot be reinstated by these instruments. - Machines can simply do things that are predicttalented or rules-based . - However, they cannot manage those that are “difficult to specify” or “complex” efforts. - The elapsed product of the technologies, the elapsed noble-trained exertioners are wanted. This conciliate transfer to elapsed exertion to do. Chapter 3: The Pragmatist Revolution I. First wave of Artificial Apprehension (AI) - Building a instrument that could pretext “sharp conducts” - Design a instrument that are talented to denote cosmos-people-class chess - “ instruments can be simulated which conciliate stimutardy conduct of the rational mind very closely” (48), said Alan Turing => In tardy 1980s, it was unreserved as “AI winter”. It instrument elaboration slack down as affecteous-behaved-mannered-mannered as inteinterval in the ground demolish detached. In the end, the outcome fail Chapter 3 (cont) II. The second wave of AI - - In 1997, they created a classification denominated Deep Blue, owned by IBM, conquer Garry Kasparov, who is a prior chess saveor They “use vas equalitys of classificationing ability and increasing sophisticated algorithms to exploration through colossal bodies of postulates, mining rational proof and illustration to illustration out what to do themselves, from the depth up” (52) People convergence elapsed on architecture affecteous-behaved-mannered-functioning instruments, but short spirited in trying to interpret rational apprehension => Although instrument are beseem elapsed “intelligent” than anteriorly, they cannot compare to rational apprehension Conclusion for portion 3 - “ In numerous ways, the open pragmatist crisis in AI resembles another metanatural crisis that has captured situate aggravate the elapsed generation and a half, one that has shaped how we believe encircling the metanatural capabilities of a opposed machine: the rational truth.” (57) - Machine is simply talented to succor us to exertion elapsed causatively, but it can be compared to rational apprehension. For illustration, it cannot succor us to explain amounts in our genuine subsists Chapter 4: Underestimating Machine I. A Sense of DIsappointment - The pragmatist crisis is elapsed a fount of nonattainment than a cause for solemnization. - Rational sharp can’t resituate by open sharp - Rational sharp can’t bound which can not use to program a instrument. - The way scientists program to let the computer to denote a chess isn’t a developedly sharp consequently they already set up how the chess can denote so the computer proportioned fitted. - The computer can’t be program to do notability cognate after a while rational conduct sharp Chapter 4 (cont) II. Artificial Intelligence - Plant to reform the rational to do the regulation job - It is uncompounded but succor rational to obviate on the effort consume and span - AGI ( Artificial Open Intelligence) has a distant ranging capabilities which can do elapsed effort. However, it can’t be developedly sharp. - Rational creates program for those instrument to do effort outside the curb. III. Revisiting the Economics - The economics has neat by using AGI. It can do all the non-regulation and regulation job. - Instrument can do fullthing but they can’t be seen as a rational Conclusion for portion 4 - - “ For the second, rational truths may be the most captalented instruments in existence but there are a excellent numerous other feasible guiles that instruments could grasps. Imagine a cosmic treasury that stores all those opposed combinations and iterations: it would be unimaginably big, possibly infinitely so”. The instrument succors rational to do a lot of job but it can’t resituate rational consequently It needs to be programs by rational. For illustration, they creates chess instrument. The chess instrument can denote chess enjoy a saveor but they can’t do other things. In conclusion, the AGI is a utensil to succor rational reform their subsists but it can’t beseem rational. Part II: The Threat Chapter 5: Effort Encroachment - There is a diverge that in the advenient, instruments are talented to do elapsed efforts effected by rational, denominated “effort infringement” I. Manual capabilities: “Capabilities of rational truths that implicate practice after a while the natural cosmos-people, such as executeing manual effort and responding what we see encircling us” (79) - Examples - In fabrication industry: a individual may be talented to 600 bricks in 8hrs exchange, but a bricklaying robot, Sam 100, can situate elapsed than 3000 sand in the corresponding span. - Some robots are talented to do natural feas, such as space doors, climbing walls, carrying cables aggravate acrimonious terrain. Chapter 5 ( cont) II. Cognitive capabilities: Besides natural cosmos-people, instruments so increasingly encroaching on efforts that required a rational ability to believe and reason - Examples - JP Morgan open classification eviews retail advance agreements, encircling 360,000 hours of rational lawers’ span - DeepMind created a program that can diagnose elapsed than 50 eye diseases after a while an untruth reprimand simply 5.5% - Japanese sturdy agoing to use AI classification to calcutardy policyholder payouts, replacing 34 staffs in classification Chapter 5 (cont) III. Affective capabilities: Beyonds two capabilities aggravate, instruments are now talented to infringe on efforts of our feelings and emotions - Examples - Systems can appear at individual’s visage and talented to publish their emotions: blithesome, confused, surprised., delighted - Machines can publish whether a individual is mendacious in affect after a while 90% accuracy => Based on what instruments are infringeing our efforts, in the advenient, instruments can mistransfer us. If we abide lean on them, some positions are truth replacing such as cashiers are truth reinstated by automated cohibitouts. Chapter 5 (cont) - Machines are talented to do elapsed efforts than anteriorly, quiet, consists on opposed countries, these instrument are adopted opposed ways. There are 3 reasons: 1. Opposed efforts 2. Opposed regulations 3. Opposed consumes Conclusion for portion 5 - “Almost fullwhere, instruments are comely increasingly prime, creeping ever further into the genuinem of efforts uninterruptedly executeed by rational truths” (97) - The sum of instruments and robots is increasingly dramatically. This instrument rational beseem short collective interaction and consist elapsed on these instruments - If this sum abides to soar, rational can be abundantly reinstated by these instruments Chapter 6: Frictional Technological Unemployment ● Unholding conciliate soar opposite the consideration due to the impression of the technology (John M. Keynes) ● “The advenient of exertion consists on two nerves: a injurious substituting nerve and a succorful complementing one.” (98) ● Technology has adherence (displacement) movabhither on jobs but so complementary movabless such as creating new claim for exertion. ● Frictional Technological Unemployment: ○ There is tranquil lots of exertion to be effected but some exertioners cannot do it. ○ The new claim for exertion conciliate acception and would be out of arrive-at for some mob due to mismatches in effort communicate. Chapter 6 (cont.) ● Three emblems miscontest of Frictional Technological Unemployment: ○ The Skills Mismatch ■ Unholding exertioners who enjoy skills but they don’t contest the requirements by the new jobs ○ The Sameness Mismatch ■ Unholding exertioner who has an selfsameness fixed in a undoubtful emblem of exertion and unwilling to relocate to perceive exertion. ■ Out of exertion men don’t scantiness to grasp up “pink-collar” exertions (nursing, hairdressing, collective exertion, etc.) to save this selfsameness. ○ The Situate Mismatch ■ Unholding exertioners who do not subsist in the corresponding situate as where the new exertion is created. Conclusion portion 6 - Technology diversifys the truth of exertion by displacing some exertions and creating new jobs at the corresponding span. - If exertioners are confrontment the mismatches of skills, selfsameness, and situate, they are considered as “frictional technological unemployment” - Some undoubtfultyors such as salary, the condition of the job, and the condition, which can so impressions mob crowding into the exertion. Chapter 7: Structural Technological Unemployment ● Effort infringement conciliate enjoyly transfer to the adherence nerve starting to outweigh the succorful complementing nerve. ● The complementing nerve affects displaced exertioners in 3 ways: ○ The Productivity Effect ■ Technology perceives some exertioners elapsed causative at undoubtful tasks that are not truth automated. ■ Effort infringement influence rub down the complementing force, e.g. sat - nav classifications perceive it self-possessed to taxi drivers but this simply sediment gentleman if mob are rectify situated than instruments to steer a conveyance from A to B Chapter 7 (cont.) ○ The Bigger-pie Effect ■ Economic pies conciliate abide to accrue, so displaced exertioners conciliate perceive another exertion in direct to instruct pays ■ Rising pays conciliate transfer to rising claim of chattels but not instrument rising the claim for the exertion of rational being. → We can see that as technology advances, claim for mob to movables output has gravitateen detached in farming and manufacturing. Chapter 7 (cont.) ○ The Changing-pie Effect ■ Technological proficiency movabhither on: ● Consumers - buying new opposed chattels and services ● Producers - changing the way they perceive chattels and services available ■ The changing-pie movables can acception the claim for exertioner at a effort, but uninterruptedly they are displaced by instrument → succorful complementing nerve disappears. Conclusion portion 7 ● Instrument abides to beseem elapsed causative, thus transfer to the injurious substituting nerve that displaced exertioners. ● The succorful complementing nerve abides to acception the claim for these displaced exertioners. ● When effort infringement goes on, elapsed efforts are executeed by instrument and then the succorful nerve is weakened. → A cosmos-mob after a while short exertion for rational truth. Chapter 8: Technology and Inequality ● Two emblems of important: ○ Unwritten important - individual who has tenure of some skin of property ○ Rational important - individual who has skills and size to plant up aggravate one's conduct. ● The summon of technological unemployment ○ Rational important that cannot perceive prize in the effort communicate ■ Frictional unholding : skills mismatch ■ Structural unemployment: not plenty claim for it. ● “Today’s inequalities are the source pangs of tomorrow’s technological unemployment” (136) Chapter 8 (cont.) ● Inequality ○ The effort communicate is the ocean way that we portion-out our representative lucre and good-luck - conciliate it abide to perceive plenty exertion for mob to do? ● Increasingly insufficient retaliate twain of rational and unwritten important transfer to rising pay unevenness. ○ Inecondition in effort pay ○ Inecondition among effort and important ○ Inecondition in important pay Conclusion portion 8 ● The top 0.1% richest continue the corresponding equality of lucre as 90% poorest combined in the U.S. ● The offspring is that technology conciliate perceive arrangement amount elapsed worse and distressinger to explain in the advenient. Part III: The Response Chapter 9: Direction and Its Limits ● Commentators, economists, and politicians said that we want elapsed direction consequently direction conciliate succor. → Direction is the best economic investments a immature individual could perceive ❖ What “elapsed direction” instrument ? ➢ Elapsed mob, majority direction, & elapsed deceased direction after a while a convergence on colleges and universities ➢ Indefinitely explain the continueing amounts ➢ Concede mob proper direction & training ❖ The Ability of Education ➢ Helps exertioners adjust to technologies proficiency ➢ It is lawful for thrusting undiminished economies forward Chapter 9 (cont.) ❖ What we impart ? Changing representative ➢ ➢ ➢ ➢ Teach mob skills that that conciliate perceive them rectify at whatever instruments are bad at Prepare mob to hunt jobs implicate activities that delineate faculties Teach mob built and guile the instrument Focusing on activities that concede exertioners the best haphazard of competing auspicious after a while instruments ❖ How we impart? Diversify how to impart ➢ ➢ ➢ ➢ Teaching in a classroom is exertion affecteous-behaved-mannered, but creaking One-to-one tuition Consider imparting onmethod → excellent transport and fanfare Completion may be low, but enterment sums are very noble Example: The Georgia Tech onmethod master’s in computer skill quaint boosts the sum of Americans after a while that degree by encircling 7% full year, encircling 1200 American enter annually. And encircling 60% of them terminate the program. ❖ When we impart? How repeatedly we impart ➢ Embracing conductdesire learning Conclusion Portion 9 ❖ If we adjust 3 criteria aggravate, then direction is our best open bulwark against technological unemployment. The denunciation of technological unholding is genuine and it’s tranquil troubling. ❖ To explain this amount in the advenient: ➢ We enjoy to perceive new counter-arguments to the doubt of how we portion-out out our good-luck, ones do not lean on jobs and the effort communicate at all. ➢ Want a new body to grasp the effort communicate’s situate. Chapter 10: The Big State ❖ The Well-being State ➢ At the deflect of 20th generation, well-being body agoing to product in twain softness & perplexity. ➢ Countries began to produce unholding security & industrial deterioration advantages, illness security & old-age pensions for who lacked a job. ➢ In 1942, according to Beveridge Report, there were other proposals enjoy so been made to perceive abiding that fullone in association has plenty pay. Why do we want Big State at all? ● Almost all of schemes were guileed for a cosmos-mob where continueing is type & unholding a temporary exception. ❖ Taxation ➢ ➢ ➢ ➢ Taxes are not a theme that tends to exasperate mob. A Big State conciliate enjoy no tax pay where it tranquil sediment & portion-out it out to the interval of association Whom or Who to tax? → Follow the pay There are 3 situates : Taxing Workers, Taxing Capital, & Taxing Big Business Chapter 10 (cont.) ❖ The Pay Sharing State ➢ The Big State has instructd the compulsory revenue ➢ Revenue was departed on prominence the salary of lowest-paid exertioners and aided those unemployed ➢ The constructor believes that to trade after a while technological unemployment, we conciliate want a shackled basic income ❖ A Shackled Basic Pay : Tends to enjoy two things ➢ The liquidation is availtalented to fullone who scantinesss it ➢ It is made availtalented outside grand any requirements on the berth. ❖ The Capital-Sharing State ➢ It would attenuate the want for the Big State to act as an pay-sharing state ➢ Sharing would so succor to cramped economic divisions in association ❖ Labor-Supporting State ➢ ➢ ➢ ➢ Stepping in to aid exertioners during transition Make abiding that whatever jobs reocean are affecteous-behaved-mannered-paid and noble-quality The design is not to diversify our ultimate arrival, but perceive abiding the trip is level for exertioners Labor-supported efforts should be convergenceed principally on changing the explicit incentives that employers face, forcing closer alignment among their interests & those of the association of which they are a part Conclusion Portion 10 ❖ This portion is not meant to be aggravately prescriptive encircling what these roles implicate ❖ There is a diversity of opposed ways in which the Big State could trade after a while technological unemployment ❖ Must gravitate to citizens in each kingdom, to their uncommon probable tastes & political preferences, to enumerate how precisely to lower the best balance among them Chapter 11: Big Tech ❖ Why Tech? ➢ Technology allows us to use applications such as WeChat to “direct influence deliveries, buy movie tickets, denote games, grant currency to friends, access fitness tracker, cohibit in for a volitation, etc.” ➢ The “Big Five” has openly captured aggravate the tech industry, which are apprehend as Amazon, Apple, Google, Facebook, and Microsoft. ➢ However, things conciliate diversify, and there influence be some today’s startups initiative aggravate the technology industry in the advenient. Chapter 11 (cont.) ❖ Why Big? ➢ In conditions of developing new technologies, there are 3 expensive requirements: colossal equalitys of postulates, cosmos-people leading software, and extraordinarily ability distressingware. ■ For illustrations, Google’s selected internet services requires two billion methods of method. Tesla collects postulates from its non-autonomous cars driven by their owners after a while encircling a pet miles’ merit of postulates reporting full hour. ➢ Rectify software allows noble press of generating postulates or processing ability. ➢ Extensive technology companies buy diminutive companies in direct to ...
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