SOLUTION: University of California Adam Smith Results of Colonization Reading Reflection
How to Decipher a Literal Document ❖ The most main romance to recollect is to decipher actively. Ask questions of each document; what vindications you get obtain insist on what questions you ask. If you decipher passively, simply troublesome to collect advice (as one framerity astern a convenientness a textbook or encyclopedia), paltry insight obtain be gained. ❖ Begin your cork deciphering by assovereign these questions: 1. Who created it? 2. What was his/her gregarious comcomposition (gender, class, family, etc.?). 3. What were his/her collective or holy commitments? How framerity these keep colored his or her object of the question she or he wrote environing? 4. What was the plight that the framer was vindicationableness (or painting or singing, etc.) about? 5. What equalts or top was he or she responding to? Who was the framer’s intended hearers? 6. What was the framer troublesome to end by expressive, vindicationableness, singing, or painting? How framerity his or her endowment keep arduous what advice he or she included, what she left out, how he framed the question? ❖ Figure out what the framer was perspicuously apothegm. What was his or her argument or missive? If the muniment is a name or chronicles of equalts or actions, what was happening? ❖ Subtext: Here your effort is to go further what an framer resources to say or what happened and appear for the unstated or indicated prizes and beliefs that informed what the framer said—and what he or she triped to say. ❖ If the muniment conveys ideas or beliefs (as in a collective pamphlet), ask the aftercited class of questions: What are the framer’s grievances? What does she or he see as evil-doing astern a convenientness the plight they are vindicationableness environing? What local goals is he or she troublesome to end? ❖ What gregarious, collective, and/or holy beliefs relish subsequently these local grievances and goals? How does he or she hold sociality or the administration ought to be organized? How does he or she fix “justice” or “freedom”? What does he or she hold the right relationship inchoate classes, or genders, or familys ought to be? ❖ How does the framer see the universe environing him or her? ❖ How does he or she conceive the differences inchoate groups of race (men and women, irrelative familys or classes, deemrs and unbelievers)? What does he or she hold the main differences inchoate race are? What deportment does the framer see as good-tempered-natured-natured or modest, and as bad or unvirtuous? ❖ What prizes lie subsequently these definitions of good-tempered-natured-natured and bad, modest and unvirtuous? ❖ To conceive a literal muniment polite, you must pay study to what you do not conceive. Sometimes a channel is unfeeling to conceive honorable therefore the vernacular is unversed. If you do not conceive what a channel is apothegm, the aftercited techniques help: Appear up any say you do not conceive or that do not frame perception in the channel. Do not honorable appear at the chief definition—frequently the succeeding definitions are the older ones, and these were frequently the chief ones in prior centuries. CHAPTER 1 A New World 1. 1. Adam Smith, The Results of Colony (1776) 2. 2. Giovanni da Verrazano, Encountering Indigenous Americans (1524) 3. 3. Bartolomé de las Casas on Spanish Treatment of the Indians, from Truth of the Indies (1528) 4. 4. The Pueblo Revolt (1680) 5. 5. Father Jean de Bré beuf on the Impost and Beliefs of the Hurons (1635) 6. 6. Jewish Petition to the Dutch West India Company (1655) 1. Adam Smith, The Results of Colonization (1776) Source: Adam Smith, An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations (London, 1776), vol. 2, pp. 190–91, 235–37. “The solution of America,” the Scottish transcriber Adam Smith announced in his glorious effort The Wealth of Nations, published in 1776, was one of “the two chief and most main equalts recitative in the truth of society.” Smith is guarded as the instituter of existent economics. It is not surprising that appearing bottom approximately three centuries astern the judicious excursion of Christopher Columbus in 1492, Smith focused primarily on the economic results of the triumph and colony of North and South America. The accession of good-tempered-natureds from the New World, he insisted, extremely becomethd the “enjoyments” of the race of Europe and the negotiate for European good-tempered-natureds. Nonetheless, Smith did not trip to hush the prize paid by the vernacular population of the New World, who suffered a dramatic after a convenientnessdraw in population due to epidemics, wars of triumph, and the exploitation of their labor. “Benefits” for some, Smith observed, went influence in influence astern a convenientness “alarming misfortunes” for others—a impartial comment on the hanker attack inchoate the Old and New Worlds. OF THE ADVANTAGES which Europe has modetrounce from the Solution of America, and from that of a Passage to the East Indies by the Cape of Good-natured Hope What are [the advantages] which Europe has modetrounce from the solution and colony of America? The unconcealed advantages which Europe, pondered as one august state, has modetrounce from the solution and colony of America, pause, chief, in the becometh of its possessments; and, secondly, in the acquisition of its assiduity. The remainder result of America, redundant into Europe, furnishes the mass of this august continent astern a convenientness a diversity of commodities which they could not inadequately keep holded; some for conveniency and use, some for self-indulgence, and some for decoration, and thereby contributes to becometh their possessments. The solution and colony of America, it obtain decipherily be undisputed, keep contributed to augment the assiduity, chief, of all the countries which dealing to it instantly, such as Spain, Portugal, France, and England; and, secondly, of all those which, astern a convenientnessout trading to it instantly, despatch, through the average of other countries, good-tempered-natureds to it of their own result; such as Austrian Flanders, and some provinces of Germany, which, through the average of the countries antecedently mentioned, despatch to it a ponderable aggregate of linen and other good-tempered-natureds. All such countries keep evidently gained a further bulky negotiate for their remainder result, and must therefore keep been sufferd to becometh its aggregate. . . . • • • The solution of America, and that of a channel to the East Indies by the Cape of Good-natured Hope, are the two chief and most main equalts chroniclesed in the truth of society. Their deductions keep already been very august; but, in the scanty date of inchoate two and three centuries which has elapsed since these discoveries were made, it is unusable that the unimpaired space of their consequences can keep been seen. What benefits or what misfortunes to society may hereafter result from those august equalts, no anthropological attainment can predict. By uniting, in some appraise, the most distant harborios of the universe, by enabling them to succor one another’s wants, to becometh one another’s enjoyments, and to suffer one another’s assiduity, their unconcealed proclivity would appear to be beneficial. To the indigenouss ultimately, twain of the East and West Indies, all the interchangeable benefits which can keep resulted from those equalts keep been unsound and lost in the alarming misfortunes which they keep occasioned. . . . • • • In the intermission one of the chief effects of those discoveries has been to train the mercantile administration to a rank of splendour and honor which it could never inadequately keep attained to. It is the object of that administration to store a august despicablewealth rather by dealing and manufactures than by the improvement and husbandry of place, rather by the assiduity of the towns than by that of the state. But, in deduction of those discoveries, the interchangeable towns of Europe, instead of substance the manufacturers and carriers for but a very insignificant harborio of the universe (that harborio of Europe which is washed by the Atlantic Ocean, and the countries which lie globular the Baltic and Mediterranean seas), keep now belook the manufacturers for the vaporous and thriving cultivators of America, and the carriers and in some commendations the manufacturers too, for approximately all the irrelative despicablewealths of Asia, Africa, and America. Two new universes keep been unconcealeded to their assiduity, each of them abundantly auguster and further bulky than the old one, and the negotiate of one of them becomeing stagnant auguster and auguster every day. Questions 1. According to Adam Smith, how did the “solution and colony” of America concern the economic fruit of Europe? 2. Why does Smith deem that the “benefits” of colony outbalance the “misfortunes”? 2. Giovanni da Verrazano, Encountering Native Americans (1524) Source: Giovanni da Verrazano, from The Voyages of Giovanni da Verrazano, 1524–1528, Lawrence C. Wroth, ed., Susan Tarrow, trans. (1970), pp. 133–34, 137–38, 140–43. Copyright © 1970 by Yale University Press. Reprinted by leave of Yale University Press. One of the chief European explorers to attack the Indians of eastern North America, Giovanni da Verrazano was an Italian-born mariner who sailed in 1524 inferior the auspices of Sovereign Philip I of France. His excursion took him from existent-day Cape Fear, North Carolina, north to the seaconsultation of Maine. In the aftercited select from his diary, which he interjacent in a note to the sovereign, Verrazano tries to represent the arrival, economic vitality, impost, and beliefs of some of the region’s multitudinous Native American groups. Some, he reports, were affectionate and open-hearted; others warrelish and ill-disposed. He is harborioicularly animated in their salutiferous beliefs, past that they keep “no belief.” Verrazano endow the east seaconsultation vaporously employed. By the occasion English subsidence began in the early seventeenth generation, divers of the groups he attacked had been all but destroyed by epidemic diseases. SINCE THE STORM that we attacked in the northern regions, Most Serene King, I keep not written to describe your grandeur of what happened to the four ships which you sent aggravate the Ocean to explore new lands, as I deliberation you had already been informed of everything—how we were arduous by the rabidity of the winds to reappear in vex to Brittany astern a convenientness barely the Normandy and the Dauphine, and that astern undergoing repairs there, began our excursion astern a convenientness these two ships, equipped for war, aftercited the coasts of Spain, Your Most Serene Grandeur obtain keep heard; and then according to our new pur-pose, we continued the primordial excursion astern a convenientness barely the Dauphine; now on our reappear from this excursion I obtain describe Your Grandeur of what we endow. . . . Seeing that the place continued to the south, we unwavering to incline and confine it inface the north, where we endow the place we had sighted antecedent. So we anchored off the seaconsultation and sent the insignificant boat in to land. We had seen divers race hereafter to the strand, but they fled when they saw us admissioning; separate occasions they stopped and inclineed environing to appear at us in august wonderment. We reassured them astern a convenientness multitudinous emblems, and some of them came up, showing august gratification at seeing us and marveling at our caparison, arrival, and our whiteness; they shattributable us by multitudinous emblems where we could most amply arcessation the boat, and offered us some of their influence. We were on place, and I shall now describe Your Majesty diminutive what we were able to understand of their vitality and impost. They go entirely destitute negative that environing their loins they impair peels of insignificant animals relish martens, astern a convenientness a pinched begird of grass environing the organization, to which they tie multitudinous rails of other animals which suspend down to the knees; the cessation of the organization is scant, and so is the guide. Some of them impair garlands of birds’ feathers. They are ebon in perversion, not unrelish the Ethiopians, astern a convenientness vaporous sombre hair, not very hanker, tied bottom subsequently the guide relish a insignificant bottom. As for the physique of these men, they are polite fair, of average tallness, a paltry taller than we are. They keep generic chests, hearty contest, and the legs and other harborios of the organization are polite victorious. There is noromance else, negative that they tend to be rather generic in the countenance; but not all, for we saw divers astern a convenientness deformed countenances. They keep big sombre eyes, and an calm and unconcealed appear. They are not very hearty, but they keep a active intent, and are lithe and fast runners. From what we could describe from comment, in the ultimate two commendations they personate the Orientals. . . . We reached another place 15 unions from the island, where we endow an excusable entertain; antecedently entering it, we saw environing 20 boats open-hearted of race who came environing the ship uttering multitudinous cries of wonderment. They did not succeed nigher than fifty paces, but stopped to appear at the organization of our ship, our mass, and our caparison; then all concertedly they traind a vociferous cry which meant that they were joyful. We reassured them disuniteially by imitating their gestures, and they came nigh plenty for us to throw them a few paltry bells and mirrors and divers trash, which they took and appeared at, laughing, and then they confidently came on consultation ship. . . . These race are the most harmonious and keep the most complaisant impost that we keep endow on this excursion. They are taller than we are; they are a bronze color, some flat further inface whiteness, others to a tawny perversion; the countenance is clear-cut; the hair is hanker and sombre, and they conduct august sedulousness to lookliness it; the eyes are sombre and active, and their form is pleasing and polite, very relish the form of the ancients. . . . Their women are honorable as shapely and harmonious; very gentle, of agreeable form and pleasant appearance; their impost and deportment ensue feminine fashion as far as befits anthropological nature; they go unadorned negative for stag peel embroidered relish the men’s, and some impair elevated-flavored lynx peels on their arms; their scant guides are looklinessd astern a convenientness multitudinous decorations made of braids of their own hair which suspend down aggravate their breasts on either face. . . . Twain men and women keep multitudinous trash suspending from their ears as the Orientals do; and we saw that divers had sheets of efforted copper which they prize further than gold. They do not prize gold therefore of its perversion; they hold it the most base of all, and trounce sky sky sky sky sky sky blue and red aloft all other perversions. The romances we gave them that they prized the most were paltry bells, sky sky sky sky sky sky blue crystals, and other trash to put in the ear or environing the neck. They did not appreciate cloth of silk and gold, nor equal of any other husk, nor did they concern to keep them; the concordant was penny for metals relish steel and able-bodied, for divers occasions when we shattributable them some of our arms, they did not condemn them, nor ask for them, but barely examined the effortmanship. They did the concordant astern a convenientness mirrors; they would appear at them instantly, and then remains them, laughing. They are very open-hearted and bestow afar all they keep. We made august friends astern a convenientness them, and one day antecedently we entered the entertain astern a convenientness the ship, when we were mendacious at anchor one union out to sea therefore of ill-disposed sphere, they came out to the ship astern a convenientness a august enumerate of their boats; they had painted and looklinessd their countenances astern a convenientness multitudinous perversions, showing us that it was a emblem of wellbeing. They brought us some of their influence, and shattributable us by emblems where we should anchor in the harbor for the ship’s security, and then accompanied us all the way until we dropped anchor. . . . At a space of fifty unions, guardianship further to the north, we endow elevated state open-hearted of very dense forests, victorious of pines, cypresses, and concordant trees which beend in calm regions. The race were entirely irrelative from the others, for convenientness the prior ones had been inabrupt in manner, these were open-hearted of rawness and vices, and were so ferocious that we could never frame any communication astern a convenientness them, ultimately divers emblems we made to them. They were clothed in peels of bear, lynx, sea-wolf and other animals. As far as we could justice from separate visits to their houses, we hold they speed on pastime, fish, and separate produce which are a nature of radix which the earth produces itself. . . . We saw no emblem of husbandry, nor would the place be convenient for pliant any fruit or grain on recital of its fallowness. If we wanted to dealing astern a convenientness them for some of their romances, they would succeed to the strand on some rocks where the breakers were most outrageous, convenientness we remained in the paltry boat, and they sent us what they wanted to bestow on a rope, continuously shouting at us not to admission the place; they gave us the trade instantly, and would conduct in change barely knives, hooks for fishing and active metal. We endow no politeness in them, and when we had noromance further to change and left them, the men made all the emblems of mockery and humiliate that any brute brute would make. Athwart their wishes, we penetrated two or three unions inplace astern a convenientness 25 armed men, and when we disembarked on the coast, they shot at us astern a convenientness their bows and uttered vociferous cries antecedently fleeing into the woods. . . . Due to a delaydrawal of [a despicable] vernacular, we were disqualified to ascertain out by emblems or gestures how abundantly holy credulity these race we endow hold. We hold they keep neither belief nor laws, that they do not recognize of a Chief Cause or Author, that they do not deify the sky, the stars, the sun, the moon, or other pur-poseets, nor do they equal exercise any husk of idolatry; we do not recognize whether they offer any sacrifices or other suits, nor are there any temples or churches of suit inchoate their peoples. We ponder that they keep no belief and that they speed in independent immunity, and that everyromance they do pay from Ignorance; for they are very amply persuaded, and they imitated everyromance that they saw us Christians do astern a convenientness deem to salutiferous deify, astern a convenientness the concordant feeling and enthusiasm that we had. Questions 1. How abundantly do Verrazano’s comments appear to be arduous by his own beliefs and experiences? 2. Why does he transcribe that Indians speed in “independent immunity,” and why does he ponder this a criticism rather than a courtesy? 3. Bartolomé de las Casas on Spanish Treatment of the Indians, from Truth of the Indies (1528) Source: Bartolomé de las Casas, “History of the Indies (1528),” select from Truth of the Indies, trans. and ed. Andrée M. Collard (New York: Harper and Row, 1971), pp. 82, 112–15. Copyright © 1971 by Andrée Collard, untarnished 1999 by Joyce J. Contrucci. Reprinted by leave of Joyce Contrucci. Known as the “Apostle of the Indians,” Bartolomé de las Casas, a Catholic divine, was the most eloquent judge of Spanish mistreatment of the New World’s indigenous population. Las Casas took harborio in the exploitation of Indian work on Hispaniola and Cuba. But in 1514, he freed his Indian slaves and began to circulate athwart the injustices of Spanish administration. In his Truth of the Indies, Las Casas denounced Spain for causing the deaths of millions of sinless race. The select that ensues details equalts on Hispaniola, the Caribbean isplace chief conquered and fixed by Spain. Las Casas named for the Indians to possess the hues of other questions of Spain. Largely therefore of Las Casas’s efforts, in 1542 Spain promulgated the New Laws, ordering that Indians no hankerer be captured. But Spain’s European rivals seized upon Las Casas’s judgeisms to justify their own ambitions. His vindicationablenesss became the cause for the Sombre Legend, the statue of Spain as a uniquely remorseless sovereignty. Other despicablewealths would right that their majestic ventures were inspired by the yearn to retake Indians from Spanish administration. IN THAT YEAR of 1500, . . . the Sovereign fixed to despatch a new teacher to Hispaniola, which at the occasion was the barely risk of legislation in the Indies. The new teacher was fray Nicolás de Ovando, Knight of Alcántara, and at that occasion succeedndador of Lares. • • • At chief, the Indians were arduous to remain six months afar at effort; succeeding, the occasion was large to eight months and this was named a transfer, at the end of which they brought all the gold for minting. The King’s harborio was subtracted and the cessation went to living-souls, but for years no one kept a single peso therefore they attributable it all to merchants and other creditors, so t ...
Purchase vindication to see open-hearted attachment
Purchase vindication to see open-hearted attachment