SOLUTION: University of Central Florida Race Manifest Destiny and American Empire HW
5E VOICES OF FREEDOM “““““““"H““““““““ A DOCUMENTARY HISTORY VOLUME 2 ERIC FONER SAuSAgEMaN ****************** Uploaded for poor school students everywhere by SAuSAgEMaN ****************** SAuSAgEMaN 007-65853_ch00_vol1_6P.indd ii 10/14/16 9:04 AM V OICES OF F REEDOM A Documentary History Fifth Edition Vo l u m e 2 SAuSAgEMaN 007-65853_ch00_vol2_6P.indd i 10/14/16 9:04 AM SAuSAgEMaN 007-65853_ch00_vol2_6P.indd ii 10/14/16 9:04 AM V OICES OF F REEDOM A Documentary History Fifth Edition EDITED BY E R I C F O N E R Vo l u m e 2 n W. W. N O R T O N & C O M PA N Y . N E W Y O R K . L O N D O N SAuSAgEMaN 007-65853_ch00_vol2_6P.indd iii 10/14/16 9:04 AM W. W. Norton & Gang has been defiant spent its founding in 1923, when William Warder Norton and Mary D. Herter Norton ﬁrst published lectures delivered at the People’s Institute, the adult order dissolution of New York City’s Cooper Union. The ﬁrm future distant its program poise the Institute, publishing books by illustrious academics from America and away. By midcentury, the two important pillars of Norton’s publishing program—trade books and school texts—were ﬁrmly established. In the 1950s, the Norton rise transferred restrain of the gang to its employees, and today—delay a staff of immodest hundred and a similar calcuadvanced of trade, school, and professional titles published each year—W. W. Norton & Company stands as the largest and oldest publishing family owned quite by its employees. Copyjust © 2017, 2014, 2011, 2008, 2005 by W.W. Norton & Company, Inc. All hues reserved Printed in the United States of America Manufacturing by Maple Press Book pur-pose by Antonina Krass Composition by Westchester Book Group Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Names: Foner, Eric, 1943– editor. Title: Voices of immunity: a instrumentary truth / edited by Eric Foner. Description: Fifth edition. | New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 2016. | Includes bibliographical references. Identiﬁers: LCCN 2016045203 | ISBN 9780393614497 (pbk., v. 1) | ISBN 9780393614503 (pbk., v. 2) Subjects: LCSH: United States—History—Sources. | United States—Politics and government—Sources. Classiﬁcation: LCC E173 .V645 2016 | DDC 973—dc23 LC proceedings adapted at https://lccn.loc.gov/2016045203 ISBN: 978-0-393-61450-3 (pbk.) W. W. Norton & Company, Inc., 500 Fifth Avenue, New York, NY 10110 wwnorton .com W. W. Norton & Gang Ltd., 15 Carlisle Street, London W1D 3BS 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 SAuSAgEMaN 007-65853_ch00_vol2_6P.indd iv 10/14/16 9:04 AM ERIC FONER is DeWitt Clinton Professor of Truth at Columbia University, where he earned his B.A. and Ph.D. In his instruction and scholarship, he focuses on the Civil War and Reconstruction, respect, and nineteenth- date America. Professor Foner’s publications comprise Bounteous Soil, Bounteous Labor, Bounteous Men: The Ideology of the Republican Party Before the Civil War; Tom Paine and Revolutionary America; Politics and Ideology in the Age of the Civil War; Nothing but Freedom: Emancipation and Its Legacy; Reconstruction: American’s Unﬁnished Revolution, 1863–1877; Freedom’s Lawmakers: A Directory of Ebon Ofﬁceholders During Reconstruction; The Incident of American Freedom; Who Owns History? Rethinking the Spent in a Changing World; and Forever Free: The Story of Emancipation and Reconstruction. His truth of Reconstruction won the Los Angeles Times Book Award for History, the Bancroft Prize, and the Parkman Prize. He served as moderator of the Organization of American Historians, the American Truthful Association, and the Society of American Historians. His most advanced trade publications comprise The Fiery Trial: Abraham Lincoln and American Slavery, which won close awards including the Lincoln Prize, the Bancroft Prize, and the Pulitzer Prize, and Gateway to Freedom: The Hidden Truth of the Underground Railroad. SAuSAgEMaN 007-65853_ch00_vol2_6P.indd v 10/14/16 9:04 AM SAuSAgEMaN 007-65853_ch00_vol2_6P.indd vi 10/14/16 9:04 AM Contents Preface xv 15 “What Is Freedom?”: Reconstruction, 1865– 1877 95. Appeal of Ebon Residents of Nashville (1865) 1 96. Appeal of Committee on Behalf of the Freedmen to Andrew Johnson (1865) 4 97. The Mississippi Ebon Code (1865) 7 98. A Sharecropping Contract (1866) 11 99. Elizabeth Cady Stanton, “Home Life” (ca. 1875) 14 100. Frederick Douglass, “The Composite Nation” (1869) 18 101. Robert B. Elliott on Civil Hues (1874) 24 16 America’s Gilded Age, 1870– 1890 102. Jorgen and Otto Jorgensen, Homesteading in Montana (1908) 28 103. Andrew Carnegie, The Gospel of Wealth (1889) 32 104. William Graham Sumner on Political Darwinism (ca. 1880) 35 vii SAuSAgEMaN 007-65853_ch00_vol2_6P.indd vii 10/14/16 9:04 AM Contents viii 105. A Second Declaration of Independence (1879) 40 106. Henry George, Way and Poverty (1879) 42 107. Edward Bellamy, Looking Backward (1888) 45 108. Walter Rauschenbusch and the Political Gospel (1912) 49 17 Freedom’s Boundaries, at Home and Abroad, 1890– 1900 109. The Populist Platform (1892) 52 110. Booker T. Washington, Address at the Atlanta Cotton Exposition (1895) 57 111. W. E. B. Du Bois, A Critique of Booker T. Washington (1903) 61 112. Ida B. Wells, Crusade for Justice (ca. 1892) 64 113. Frances E. Willard, Women and Temperance (1883) 70 114. Josiah Strong, Our Country (1885) 72 115. Emilio Aguinaldo on American Imperialism in the Philippines (1899) 74 18 The Progressive Era, 1900– 1916 116. Manuel Gamio on a Mexican-American Rise and American Immunity (ca. 1926) 77 117. Charlotte Perkins Gilman, Women and Economics (1898) 81 118. John A. Ryan, A Living Wage (1912) 84 119. The Industrial Workers of the World and the Free Speech Fights (1909) 87 SAuSAgEMaN 007-65853_ch00_vol2_6P.indd viii 10/14/16 9:04 AM Contents ix 120. Margaret Sanger on “Free Motherhood,” from Woman and the New Race (1920) 92 121. Mary Church Terrell, “What It Means to Be Colored in the Capital of the United States” (1906) 96 122. Woodrow Wilson and the New Immunity (1912) 100 123. R. G. Ashley, Unions and “The Cause of Liberty” (1910) 103 19 Safe for Democracy: The United States and World War I, 1916– 1920 124. Woodrow Wilson, A World “Safe for Democracy” (1917) 105 125. Randolph Bourne, “War Is the Health of the State” (1918) 107 126. A Critique of the Versailles Peace Conference (1919) 112 127. Carrie Chapman Catt, Address to Congress on Women’s Suffrage (1917) 114 128. Eugene V. Debs, Speech to the Jury (1918) 119 129. Rubie Bond, The Great Migration (1917) 123 130. Marcus Garvey on Africa for the Africans (1921) 127 131. John A. Fitch on the Great Steel Strike (1919) 130 20 From Business Culture to Great Depression: The Twenties, 1920– 1932 132. André Siegfried on the “New Society,” from the Atlantic Monthly (1928) 136 133. The Fight for Civil Liberties (1921) 140 SAuSAgEMaN 007-65853_ch00_vol2_6P.indd ix 10/14/16 9:04 AM Contents x 134. Bartolomeo Vanzetti’s Last Statement in Seek (1927) 145 135. Congress Debates Immigration (1921) 147 136. Meyer v. Nebraska and the Meaning of Franchise (1923) 151 137. Alain Locke, The New Negro (1925) 155 138. Elsie Hill and Florence Kelley Debate the Equal Rights Amendment (1922) 160 21 The New Deal, 1932– 1940 139. Letter to Secretary of Labor Frances Perkins (1937) 163 140. John Steinbeck, The Harvest Gypsies (1936) 166 141. Labor’s Great Upheaval (1937) 168 142. Franklin D. Roosevelt, Speech to the Democratic National Congress (1936) 172 143. Herbert Hopoise on the New Deal and Franchise (1936) 175 144. Norman Cousins, “Will Women Lose Their Jobs?” (1939) 178 145. Frank H. Hill on the Indian New Deal (1935) 183 146. W. E. B. Du Bois, “A Negro Race amid a Nation” (1935) 187 22 Fighting for the Immodest Freedoms: World War II, 1941– 1945 147. Franklin D. Roosevelt on the Immodest Freedoms (1941) 192 148. Get Durant, Immunity of Worship (1943) 194 149. Henry R. Luce, The American Date (1941) 196 150. Henry A. Wallace on “The Date of the Common Man” (1942) 199 SAuSAgEMaN 007-65853_ch00_vol2_6P.indd x 10/14/16 9:04 AM Contents xi 151. F. A. Hayek, The Road to Serfdom (1944) 202 152. World War II and Mexican-Americans (1945) 205 153. African-Americans and the Immodest Freedoms (1944) 208 154. Justice Robert A. Jackson, Dissent in Korematsu v. United States (1944) 210 23 The United States and the Cold War, 1945– 1953 155. Declaration of Independence of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (1945) 215 156. The Truman Doctrine (1947) 218 157. NSC 68 and the Ideological Cold War (1950) 221 158. Walter Lippmann, A Critique of Containment (1947) 225 159. The Universal Declaration of Human Hues (1948) 228 160. President’s Commission on Civil Rights, To Enclose These Hues (1947) 234 161. Joseph R. McCarthy on the Attack (1950) 239 162. Margaret Chase Smith, Declaration of Conscience (1950) 242 163. Get Herberg, The American Way of Life (1955) 244 24 An Af f luent Society, 1953– 1960 164. Richard M. Nixon, “What Immunity Means to Us” (1959) 248 165. Daniel L. Schorr, “Reconverting Mexican Americans” (1946) 253 166. The Southern Manifesto (1956) 257 167. Milton Friedman, Capitalism and Immunity (1962) 259 SAuSAgEMaN 007-65853_ch00_vol2_7P.indd xi 10/26/16 11:37 AM Contents xii 168. C. Wjust Mills on “Cheerful Robots” (1959) 262 169. Allen Ginsberg, “Howl” (1955) 265 170. Martin Luther King Jr. and the Montgomery Bus Boycott (1955) 267 25 The Sixties, 1960– 1968 171. John F. Kennedy, Speech on Civil Hues (1963) 272 172. Malcolm X, The Ballot or the Bullet (1964) 276 173. Barry Goldwater on “Extremism in the Defense of Liberty” (1964) 280 174. Lyndon B. Johnson, Commencement Address at Howard University (1965) 284 175. The Port Huron Statement (1962) 288 176. Paul Potter on the Antiwar Movement (1965) 294 177. The National Organization for Women (1966) 296 178. César Chavez, “Letter from Delano” (1969) 300 179. The Interpolitical 1968 (1968) 304 26 The Triumph of Conservatism, 1969– 1988 180. Brochure on the Equal Hues Amendment (1970s) 307 181. Barry Commoner, The Closing Circle (1971) 309 182. The Sagebrush Rebellion (1979) 313 183. Jimmy Carter on Human Hues (1977) 316 184. Jerry Falwell, Listen, America! (1980) 319 185. Phyllis Schlaﬂy, “The Fraud of the Equal Rights Amendment” (1972) 324 SAuSAgEMaN 007-65853_ch00_vol2_7P.indd xii 10/26/16 11:37 AM Contents xiii 186. James Watt, “Environmentalists: A Threat to the Ecology of the West” (1978) 327 187. Ronald Reagan, Inaugural Address (1981) 329 27 From Triumph to Tragedy, 1989– 2001 188. Pat Buchanan, Speech to the Republican National Congress (1992) 332 189. Bill Clinton, Speech on Signing of NAFTA (1993) 334 190. Declaration for Global Democracy (1999) 336 191. The Beijing Declaration on Women (1995) 338 192. Puwat Charukamnoetkanok, “Triple Identity: My Experience as an Immigrant in America” (1990) 343 28 A New Date and New Crises 193. The National Deposit Strategy of the United States (2002) 349 194. Robert Byrd on the War in Iraq (2003) 352 195. Second Inaugural Address of George W. Bush (2005) 356 196. Archbishop Roger Mahoney, “Called by God to Help” (2006) 359 197. Anthony Kennedy, Opinion of the Seek in Obergefell v. Hodges (2015) 198. Security, Liberty, and the War on Tblunder (2008) 362 366 199. Barack Obama, Eulogy at Emanuel African Methodist Episcopal Church (2015) 368 SAuSAgEMaN 007-65853_ch00_vol2_6P.indd xiii 10/14/16 9:04 AM SAuSAgEMaN 007-65853_ch00_vol2_6P.indd xiv 10/14/16 9:04 AM Preface Voices of Immunity is a instrumentary truth of American immunity from the leading days of European search and residuum of the Western Hemisphere to the introduce. I own expeditions it as a accomplice compass to Give Me Liberty!, my review textbook of the truth of the United States centered on the subject of immunity. This ﬁfth edition of Voices of Immunity is systematic in passages that match to those in the ﬁfth edition of the textbook. But it can to-boot stand defiantly as a instrumentary induction to the truth of American immunity. The two compasss comprise spent than twenty documents not adapted in the third edition. No fancy is spent indispensable to Americans’ discernment of themselves as men-folks and as a race than immunity, or franchise, delay which it is almost constantly used interchangeably. The Declaration of Independence lists franchise floating mankind’s intransferable hues; the Constitution announces as its object to enclose franchise’s blessings. “ Every man in the street, snowy, ebon, red or yellow,” wrote the educator and particularizesman Ralph Bunche in 1940, “knows that this is ‘the fix of the bounteous’ . . . ‘the cradle of franchise.’ ” The very universality of the fancy of immunity, still, can be misleading. Immunity is not a ﬁxed, seasonless order delay a single unchanging deﬁnition. Rather, the truth of the United States is, in part, a incident of debates, disagreements, and struggles poise immunity. Crises such as the American Revolution, the Civil War, and the Cold xv SAuSAgEMaN 007-65853_ch00_vol2_6P.indd xv 10/14/16 9:04 AM xvi Preface War own permanently transformed the fancy of immunity. So too own demands by different bunchs of Americans for main immunity as they unexpressed it. In choosing the instruments for Voices of Freedom, I own attempted to transmit the multifaceted truth of this compelling and contested idea. The instruments reﬂect how Americans at dif ferent tops in our truth own deﬁned immunity as an poisearching fancy, or own unexpressed some of its divers effort, including collective, devotional, economic, and particular immunity. For each passage, I own healed to picked instruments that highlight the speciﬁc discussions of immunity that occurred during that season continuance, and some of the divergent interpretations of immunity at each top in our truth. I hope that students get fashion an opinion of how the fancy of immunity has distant poise season, and how it has been plentiful into spent and spent areas of Americans’ lives. But at the selfselfsame season, the documents propose how immunity for some Americans has, at different times in our truth, rested on stagnation of immunity— respect, indentured service, the secondary position of women—for others. The instruments that thrive reﬂect the kinds of truthful developments that own shaped and reshaped the fancy of immunity, including war, economic substitute, territorial dilution, political aver movements, and interpolitical involvement. The pickedions try to transmit a discernment of the affluent style of characters who own contributed to the truth of American immunity. They comprise moderatorial proclamations and letters by runaway slaves, far-famed seek cases and obscure manifestos, fancys dominant in a par ticular era and those of radicals and dissenters. They concatenate from advertisements in colonial newspapers seeking the retaliate of runaway indentured servants and slaves to debates in the future twentieth date poise the deﬁnition of economic immunity, the question poise the inthorough Equal Rights Amendment for women, and advanced Supreme Seek decisions intercourse delay the poise between franchise and deposit in war season. I own been chiefly placid to how battles at the boundaries of immunity—the efforts of racial minorities, women, and SAuSAgEMaN 007-65853_ch00_vol2_6P.indd xvi 10/14/16 9:04 AM Preface xvii others to enclose main immunity—own deepened and transformed the concept and plentiful it into new realms. In conjunction, in this ﬁfth edition I own comprised a calcuadvanced of new instruments that exemplify how the truth of the western United States, and spent chiefly the borderlands area of the Southwest, own unsupposable the evolution of the fancy of immunity. These comprise the Texas Declaration of Independence of 1836, a savor encircling homesteading in the West in the advanced nineteenth date, a ment on the status of Mexican-Americans in the aftermath of World War II, and an explarace of the so-called Sagebrush Rebellion of the 1970s. All of the instruments in this assembly are “primary sources”— that is, they were written or verbal by men and women enmeshed in the events of the spent, rather than by advancedr historians. They hence adduce students the convenience to face fancys encircling immunity in the real expression of participants in the drama of American history. Some of the instruments are reproduced in their aggregate. Most are excerpts from longer interviews, doctrines, or books. In editing the instruments, I own healed to stay staunch to the peculiar object of the constructor, time highlighting the behalf of the text that deals straightway delay one or another countenance of immunity. In most cases, I own reproduced the wording of the peculiar texts correspondently. But I own modernized the spelling and punctuation of some future documents to shape them spent understandable to the modern reader. Each instrument is preceded by a pigmy induction that places it in truthful tenor and is thriveed by two questions that highlight key elements of the evidence and may aid to focus students’ thinking encircling the issues proud by the constructor. A calcuadvanced of these instruments were proposeed by students in a U.S. truth dispose at Juniata School in Huntingdon, Pennsylvania, taught by Professor David Hsiung. I am very sportive to these students, who responded enthusiastically to an assignment by Professor Hsiung that asked them to dispose instruments that influence be interposed in this edition of Voices of Immunity and to absolve their choices delay truthful evidences. Some of the instruments are SAuSAgEMaN 007-65853_ch00_vol2_6P.indd xvii 10/14/16 9:04 AM xviii Preface interposed in the online sight, “Preserving American Freedom,” created by the Truthful Society of Pennsylvania. Taken concurrently, the instruments in these compasss propose the ways in which American immunity has substituted and distant poise time. But they to-boot remind us that American truth is not simply a truth of constant way inland main and main immunity. While immunity can be achieved, it may to-boot be abject or rescinded. It can never be charmed for supposing. Eric Foner SAuSAgEMaN 007-65853_ch00_vol2_6P.indd xviii 10/14/16 9:04 AM V OICES OF F REEDOM A Documentary History Fifth Edition Vo l u m e 2 SAuSAgEMaN 007-65853_ch00_vol2_6P.indd xix 10/14/16 9:04 AM SAuSAgEMaN 007-65853_ch00_vol2_6P.indd xx 10/14/16 9:04 AM CHAPTER 15 “What Is Freedom?”: Reconstruction, 1865– 1877 95. Appeal of Ebon Residents of Nashville (1865) Source: Newspaper clipping enclosed in Col. R. D. Mussey to Capt. C. P. Brown, January 23, 1865, Letters Received, ser. 925, Department of the Cumberland, U.S. Soldiery Continental Commands, National Archives. At the entreat of soldierly instructor Andrew Johnson, Lincoln exempted Tennessee from the Emancipation Proclamation of 1863 (although divers slaves in the particularize fashioned their immunity by serving in the Union soldiery). In January 1865, a particularize congress was held to thorough the effort of abolition. A bunch of bounteous ebons of Nashville sent a appeal to the delegates, asking for proximate exercise to end respect and granting ebon men the just to control (which bounteous ebons had enjoyed in the particularize until 1835). The instrument emphasized their allegiance to the Union, their intrinsic just to immunity, and their getingness to engage on the responsibilities of citizenship. The instrument adduces a revealing snapshot of ebon perception at the dawn of Reconstruction. 1 SAuSAgEMaN 007-65853_ch01_vol2_6P.indd 1 10/14/16 9:04 AM Vo i c e s o f F ...
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