Concepts below come from the assigned textbook readings and the lectures. Please don’t memorize definitions (it’s not
effective). Rather, make sure you can explain each concept to somebody who hasn’t taken the course. Practice with a friend,
relative, or talk to yourself – it takes a good understanding of a concept to explain it to another person, so if you can do this for
the below concepts, you will be fine on the exam. Also read the box on pg. 03-13 of your textbook for valuable studying tips.
• Distinguishing features of an emotion (as opposed to a mood)
• Recognize which emotions are considered the six primary ones
• Difference between James-Lange, Cannon-Bard, and Schacter-Singer model of emotions
• Evolutionary/adaptive function of various emotions
• Function of facial expressions
• What is personality? How is it different than temperament?
• Relationship between baby’s temperament and his/her personality when s/he grows up (gene x environment
• Basics of Freudian/psychodynamic model of personality; Id, Ego, Superego model; basic ideas behind psychosexual
stages (no need to memorize them); Defense mechanisms
• How do psychoanalyists assess personality?
• Basic idea of humanistic personality theory and of trait theory
• Big Five personality trait model; understand how different levels of each trait can be beneficial in the right
• Marshmallow experiment, delayed gratification, and self-control
• Locus of control & learned helplessness
• Fundamental attribution error
• Foot-in-the-door & door-in-the-face phenomena and why they might work
• Cognitive dissonance and its effects on behavior
• Asch conformity study, Milgram obedience experiment, Zimbardo prison experiment
• Xenophobia, formation of Ingroups and Outgroups, and dehumanization of Outgroups; Robber’s Cave experiment
• Social facilitation and social loafing; bystander effect
• Group polarization and groupthink
• What is a disorder, and what are the controversies surrounding the concept?
• Be able to recognize/identify the disorders we covered if I provide their symptoms, and know some basic facts about
• Basic features and differences between three main orientations (humanist, psychodynamic, CBT)
• Electroconvulsive therapy, how psychoactive medication work (in general)
• Biomedical model vs. biopsychosocial model
• Most important aspect of psychotherapy that predicts best outcome
• Pros and cons of medical therapy vs. psychotherapy for psychological issues
If you can, please answer these as well.
How is your brain like a computer, and how is it different?
How twins help us understand genetics
Ultimate reason for why we have two sexes and why the sexes act differently
Sociocultural learning theory of sex differences
Brain development of infants (including pruning)