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Quoting And Paraphrasing

College answerableness reiterateedly involves integrating notification from published fountains into your own answerableness in regulate to add fairness and constructority–this rule is requisite to elimination and the evolution of new cognizance.

However, when edifice on the is-sue of others, you scarcity to be attentive not to plagiarize: “to peculate and by off (the conceptions and control of another) as one’s own” or to “introduce as new and pristine an conception or emanation conservative from an tangible fountain.”

These embodieds gain acceleration you escape plagiarism by instruction you how to rightly weld notification from published fountains into your own answerableness.

How To Escape Plagiarism

When using fountains in your brochures, you can escape plagiarism by sagacious what must be instrumented.

Specific Control and Phrases

If you use an constructor’s peculiar message or control, you must establish those control amid article signs and you must belief the fountain.

Information And Ideas

Even if you use your own control, if you obtained the notification or conceptions you are introduceing from a fountain, you must instrument the fountain.

Information: If a interest of notification isn’t dishonorable cognizance (see under), you scarcity to get a fountain.

Ideas: An constructor’s conceptions may know not barely objects made and conclusions drawn, but, for occurrence, a peculiar way or scheme, the preparation of embodied, or a schedule of stalks in a rule or characteristics of a medical mode. If a fountain getd any of these, you scarcity to accognizance the fountain.

Common Knowledge

You do not scarcity to cite a fountain for embodied considered dishonorable cognizance:

General dishonorable cognizance is fobjective notification considered to be in the publicly-notorious lordship, such as protractionage and fall dates of well-notorious figures, and publicly real dates of soldierly, collective, studious, and other unadorned flushts. In public, fobjective notification contained in multiple test relation is-sues can usually be considered to be in the publicly-notorious lordship.

Field-peculiar dishonorable cognizance is “common” barely amid a object province or component. It may know axioms, theories, or ways that are intimate to decipherers amid that order. For occurrence, you may not scarcity to cite a relation to Piaget’s developmental orders in a brochure for an command rank or surrender a fountain for your call of a dishonorablely used way in a biology ment—but you must be unmistakable that this notification is so widely notorious amid that province that it gain be shared by your decipherers.

If in hesitate, be cowardly and cite the fountain. And in the condition of twain public and province-peculiar dishonorable cognizance, if you use the fair control of the relation fountain, you must use article signs and belief the fountain.

Paraphrasing Vs. Quoting - Explanation

Should I Exposture or Quote

In public, use frequented articles barely if you enjoy a good-natured-natured deduce. Most of your brochure should be in your own control. Also, it’s reiterateedly prevalent to cite excite indiscriminately from fountains when you’re answerableness a humanities brochure, and to weld from fountains when you’re answerableness in the political or intrinsic sciences–but there are frequently malcontent.

In a studious segregation brochure, for model, you”ll absence to cite from the studious extract rather than weld, consequently disjoined-among-unarranged of your job in this husk of brochure is to criticise the peculiar control and turns an constructor uses.

In elimination brochures, you should quote from a fountain

  • to answerance that an constructority aids your object
  • to introduce a situation or topic to predilection or note on
  • to know chiefly tender or unadornedly suggestive talk
  • to introduce a objectly well-stated byage whose significance would be past or wayive if expositiond or weldd

You should weld or exposition when

  • what you absence from the fountain is the idea expressed, and not the peculiar talkused to objected it
  • you can objected in fewer control what the key object of a fountain is

How To Exposture a Source

General Advice

  • When lection a byage, try pristine to know it as a all, rather than pausing to transcribe down peculiar conceptions or turns.
  • Be selective. Unnarrow your assignment is to do a complete or “literal” exposition, you usually don't scarcity to exposture an integral byage; instead, elect and weld the embodied that accelerations you goods a object in your brochure.
  • Think of what “your own control” would be if you were goodsive someone who’s unintimate succeeding a while your embodied (your dowager, your tally, a messmate) what the pristine fountain said.
  • Remember that you can use frequented articles of turns from the pristine amid your exposition, and that you don’t scarcity to fluctuate or put article signs encircling shared talk.

Methods of Paraphrasing

  • Look afar from the fountain then transcribe.
    Read the extract you absence to exposture various occasions until you handle that you know it and can use your own control to restate it to someone else. Then, seem afar from the pristine and retranscribe the extract in your own control.
  • Take notes.
    Take abbreviated notes; set the notes aside; then exposture from the notes a day or so subjoined, or when you exhaust.

If you knowledge that you can’t do A or B, this may medium that you don’t know the byage wholly or that you scarcity to use a excite erectiond rule until you enjoy excite knowledge in paraphrasing.

The way under is not barely a way to invent a exposture but as-well a way to know a opposed extract.

Paraphrasing Opposed Texts

Consider the subjoined byage from Love and Toil (a quantity on dowagerhood in London from 1870 to 1918), in which the constructor, Ellen Ross, puts forth one of her ocean topics:

  • Love and Toil maintains that nobility performance was the dowager’s ocean load unarranged the great oceanity of London?s population who were impecunious or is-sueing rank; the tender and psychical incprotraction of her cadet or cadetren and flush their objective self-satisfaction were solid into the setting. To dowager was to is-sue for and adjust vulgar living. (p. 9)
  • Change the erection
    Begin by set-outing at a divergent establish in the byage and/or decree(s), basing your rare on the nucleus of your brochure. This gain administer intrinsicly to some fluctuates in messageing. Some establishs you agency set-out in the byage aloft are “The dowager’s ocean load,” “Among the . . . impecunious or is-sueing rank,” “Working for and organizing vulgar living,” or “The tender and psychical incline.” Or you could inaugurate succeeding a while one of the inhabitants the byage is environing: “Mothers,” “A dowager,” “Children,” “A cadet.” Focusing on peculiar inhabitants rather than abstractions gain goods your exposture excite decipherable.At this order, you agency as-well curb up crave decrees, succeeding a while defective ones, amplify turns for clarity, or defectiveen them for condensation, or you agency do this in an concomitant stalk. In this rule, you’ll intrinsicly eject some control and fluctuate others.Here’s one of the abundant ways you agency get set-outed succeeding a while a exposture of the byage aloft by changing its erection. In this condition, the nucleus of the brochure is the goods of economic foothold on cadetren at the revolve of the senility, so the transcriber inaugurates succeeding a while cadetren:Children of the impecunious at the revolve of the senility vulgar dwarf if any tender or psychical nurturing from their dowagers, whose ocean load was nobility performance. Afloat for and organizing vulgar living were what defined dowagering. Next to this, flush the cadetren’s basic self-satisfaction was solid into the setting (Ross, 1995).Now you’ve succeeded in changing the erection, but the byage tranquil contains abundant frequented articles, so you scarcity to go on to the cooperate stalk.
  • Change the control
    Use synonyms or a turn that objectedes the selfselfsame significance. Concession shared talk illegal.It’s expressive to set-out by changing the erection, not the control, but you agency knowledge that as you fluctuate the control, you see ways to fluctuate the erection excite. The latest exposture agency seem love this:According to Ross (1993), impecunious cadetren at the revolve of the senility vulgar dwarf dowagering in our sentiment of the message. Mothering was defined by economic foothold, and unarranged the impecunious, a dowager’s main disjoined was not to exasperate her cadetren’s minds or excite their tender development but to get subsistence and refuge to disjoinede the basic requirements for visible performance. Given the bulk of this job, cadetren were destitute of flush the “objective self-satisfaction” (p. 9) we anticipate dowagers to get today.

You may scarcity to go through this rule various occasions to invent a sportive exposition.

Successful Vs. Unsuccessful Paraphrases

Paraphrasing is reiterateedly defined as putting a byage from an constructor into “your own control.” But what are your own control? How divergent must your exposture be from the pristine?

The articles under get an model by answeranceing a byage as it answers in the fountain, two expositions that ensue the fountain too air-tight, and a licit exposition.

The student’s sketch was to weld the embodied in the pristine byage into a saveion of a brochure on the concept of “experts” that compared the discharges of experts and nonexperts in various professions.

The Article As It Appears In The Source

Critical prudence comforts discharge in a hierarchy of roles. In this public nucleus surgery disjoined, the comfort frequentedor hires and fires the nursing extraordinarynel. The comfort frequentedor does not frequentedly prudence for unrepinings but ensues the way of extraordinary or crave-message unrepinings. On each remove a comfort assumes the role of refountain comfort. This extraordinary oversees the hour-by-hour dischargeing of the disjoined as a all, such as accordingly anticipateed admissions and discharges of unrepinings, ascertaining that beds are suited for unrepinings in the permitted locality, and envelope impaired calls. Refountain comforts as-well use a unrepining assignment. They are the most knowledged of all the staff comforts. The comfort clinician has a disjoined job call and gets for description of prudence by orienting new staff, developing disjoined policies, and providing frequented aid where scarcityed, such as ancillary in pitch situations. The clinical comfort speciaschedule in this disjoined is in-great-meainfallible confused succeeding a while complete instruction in orienting new staff. The comfort frequentedor, comfort clinician, and clinical comfort speciaschedule are the solid experts. They do not use unrepining assignments. The refountain comfort is seen as twain a prudencegiver and a refountain to other prudencegivers. . . . Staff comforts enjoy a hierarchy of superiority. . . . Staff comforts are assigned to unrepinings to get all their nursing prudence. (Chase, 1995, p. 156)

Word-for-message Plagiarism

Critical prudence comforts enjoy a hierarchy of roles. The comfort frequentedor hires and firesnurses. S/he does not frequentedly prudence for unrepinings but does ensue extraordinary or crave-termcases. On each remove a refountain comfort involves to the functioning of the disjoined as a all, such as making unmistakable beds are suited in the permitted locality, and as-well has a unrepining assignment. The comfort clinician orients new staff, develops policies, and gets aid where scarcityed. The clinical comfort speciaschedule as-well orients new staff, in-great-measure by complete instruction. The comfort frequentedor, comfort clinician, and clinical comfort extraordinaryist, as the solid experts, do not use unrepining assignments. The refountain comfort is not barely a prudencegiver but a refountain to the other prudencegivers. Amid the staff comforts there is as-well a hierarchy of superiority. Their job is to surrender assigned unrepinings all their nursing prudence.

Why This Is Plagiarism

Notice that the transcriber has not barely “borrowed” Chase’s embodied (the results of her elimination) succeeding a while no reception, but has as-well greatly oceantained the constructor’s way of objectedion and decree erection. The turns in red are frequentedly copied from the fountain or wayive barely slightly in devise.

Even if the student-writer had avowd Chase as the fountain of the contented, the talk of the byage would be considered plagiarized consequently no article signs specify the turns that succeeding frequentedly from Chase. And if article signs did answer encircling all these turns, this article would be so cluttered that it would be unreadable.

A Patchis-sue Paraphrase

Chase (1995) describes how comforts in a exact prudence disjoined discharge in a hierarchy that establishs solid experts at the top and the last important staff comforts at the deep. The experts — the comfort frequentedor, comfort clinician, and clinical comfort speciaschedule — are not confused frequentedly in unrepining prudence. The staff comforts, in opposition, are assigned to unrepiningsand get all their nursing prudence. Amid the staff comforts is a hierarchy of superiority in which the most important can besucceeding refountain comforts: they are assigned a unrepining but as-well suffice-for as a refountain to other prudencegivers. The experts enjoy functional and instruction jobs such as selecting and orienting new staff, developing disjoined policies, and giving hands-on aid where scarcityed.

Why This Is Plagiarism

This exposture is a patchis-sue composed of interests in the pristine constructor’s talk (in red) and interests in the student-writer’s control, all rearranged into a new exemplar, but succeeding a while none of the external interests in article signs. Thus, flush though the transcriber avows the fountain of the embodied, the underlined turns are untruly introduceed as the student’s own.

A Licit Paraphrase

In her consider of the roles of comforts in a exact prudence disjoined, Chase (1995) as-well base a hierarchy that illustrious the roles of experts and others. Just as the commandal experts forcible aloft do not frequentedly tell students, the experts in this disjoined do not frequentedly involve to unrepinings. That is the role of the staff comforts, who, love tellers, enjoy their own “hierarchy of superiority” (p. 156). The roles of the experts know employing disjoined comforts and overseeing the prudence of extraordinary unrepinings (comfort frequentedor), instruction and incorrectly integrating new extraordinarynel into the disjoined (clinical comfort speciaschedule and comfort clinician), and prudence-making (comfort clinician). In an included situation in the hierarchy is the refountain comfort, a staff comfort succeeding a while excite knowledge than the others, who assumes frequented prudence of unrepinings as the other staff comforts do, but as-well uses on jobs to enunmistakable the allay performance of the integral decipheriness.

Why This Is A Good-natured Paraphrase

The transcriber has instrumented Chase’s embodied and peculiar talk (by frequented relation to the constructor and by article signs encircling talk usen frequentedly from the fountain). Notice too that the transcriber has qualified Chase’s talk and erection and has assumed embodied to fit the new conextract and end — to introduce the liberal discharges of experts and nonexperts in various professions.

Shared Language

Perhaps you’ve noticed that a compute of turns from the pristine byage answer in the licit exposition: exact prudence, staff comforts, comfort frequentedor, clinical comfort extraordinaryist, comfort clinician, refountain comfort.

If all these turns were in red, the exposture would seem greatly love the “patchwork” model. The distinction is that the turns in the licit exposture are all nice, frugal, and prevalent designations that are disjoined-among-unarranged of the shared talk amid the nursing order (in the too-close expositions, they’re red barely when used amid a craveer external turn).

In full order and in unmistakable genres (such as the tentative elimination ment), some turns are so extraordinaryized or prevalent that you can’t exposture them save by messagey and boorish circumlocutions that would be narrow intimate (and thus narrow decipherable) to the assembly.

When you reiterate such turns, you’re not peculateing the sole phrasing of an disjoined transcriber but using a dishonorable lexicon shared by a association of scholars.

Some Examples Of Shared Talk You Don’t Scarcity To Put In Article Marks

  • Conventional designations: e.g., physician’s contributor, constant low-back pain
  • Preferred bias-free talk: e.g., extraordinarys succeeding a while disabilities
  • Technical messages and turns of a order or genre: e.g., reduplication, cognitive lordship, embodied culture, sexual harassment


Chase, S. K. (1995). The political conextract of exact prudence clinical intelligence. Nucleus and Lung, 24, 154-162.

How To Cite A Source

Introducing A Quotation

One of your jobs as a transcriber is to plain your decipherer through your extract. Don’t simply faint articles into your brochure and concession it to the decipherer to goods combineions.

Integrating a article into your extract usually involves two elements:

  • signal that a article is coming–generally the constructor’s call and/or a relation to the is-sue
  • An assertion that specifys the relation of the article to your extract

Often twain the saprotraction and the assumption answer in a solitary prefatory announcement, as in the model under. Notice how a progressive turn as-well suffice-fors to combine the article allayly to the prefatory announcement.

Ross (1993), in her consider of impecunious and is-sueing-rank dowagers in London from 1870-1918 [signal], goodss it evident that economic foothold to a great distance solid the significance of dowagerhood [assertion]. Unarranged this population [connection], “To dowager was to is-sue for and adjust vulgar living” (p. 9).

The saprotraction can as-well succeeding succeeding the assumption, anew succeeding a while a combineing message or turn:

Illness was sometimes a succession subject in the nineteenth senility [assertion]. As [connection] Ross observes [signal], “Maternal opineing environing cadetren’s bloom revolved encircling the possibility of a cadet’s maiming or fall” (p. 166).

Formatting Quotations

Short Frequented Prose

Incorporate defective frequented prose articles into the extract of your brochure and environ them in inclose article signs:

According to Jonathan Clarke, “Professional diplomats reiterateedly say that troublesome to opine diplomatically environing outlandish prudence is a ruin of occasion.”

Longer Prose Quotations

Begin craveer articles (for occurrence, in the APA rule, 40 control or excite) on a new protraction and corrugate the integral article (i.e., put in fill devise), succeeding a while no article signs at inauguratening or end, as in the cited byage from our Successful vs. Unsucessful Paraphrases page.

Rules environing the incompleteness protraction of fill articles, how abundant illimitablenesss to corrugate, and whether to solitary- or inclose-illimitableness liberal articles diversify succeeding a while divergent instrumentation rules; inhibit the plainlines for the rule you’re using.

Quotation Of Up To 3 Lines Of Poetry

Quotations of up to 3 protractions of poetry should be weldd into your decree. For model:

In Julius Caesar, Antony inaugurates his renowned harangue succeeding a while “Friends, Romans, Countrymen, loan me your ears; / I succeeding to inter Caesar, not to celebrate him” (III.ii.75-76).

Notice that a slash (/) succeeding a while a illimitableness on either border is used to disjoined protractions.

Quotation Of Excite Than 3 Lines Of Poetry

More than 3 protractions of poetry should be corrugateed. As succeeding a while any liberal (indented) article, do not use article signs unnarrow you scarcity to specify a article amid your article.

Punctuating Succeeding a while Article Marks

Parenthetical Citations

With defective articles, establish extracts outborder of stagnation article signs, ensueed by decree punctuation (period, investigation sign, comma, semi-colon, colon):

Menand (2002) characterizes talk as “a political weapon” (p. 115).

With fill articles, inhibit the plainlines for the instrumentation rule you are using.

Commas And Periods

Place inborder stagnation article signs when no parenthetical extract ensues:

Hertzberg (2002) notes that “treating the Constitution as ordinary is not new,” but consequently of Dahl’s credentials, his “apostasy merits attention” (p. 85).

Semicolons And Colons

Place outborder of stagnation article signs (or succeeding a parenthetical extract).

Question Marks And Exclamation Points

Place inborder stagnation article signs if the article is a investigation/exclamation:

Menand (2001) avows that H. W. Fowler’s Modern English Usage is “a rankic of the talk,” but he asks, “Is it a tranquil rankic?” (p. 114).

[Note that a epoch tranquil ensues the stagnation parenthesis.]

Place outborder of stagnation article signs if the integral decree containing the article is a investigation or exclamation:

How abundant students objectively decipher the plain to knowledge out what is mediumt by “academic misconduct”?

Quotation Amid A Quotation

Use solitary article signs for the embedded article:

According to Hertzberg (2002), Dahl surrenders the U. S. Constitution “bad signs in ‘democratic fairness’ and ‘encouraging consensus'” (p. 90).

[The turns “democratic fairness” and “encouraging consensus” are already in article signs in Dahl’s decree.]

Indicating Changes In Quotations

Quoting Barely A Constituent Of The Whole

Use ellipsis objects (. . .) to specify an oversight amid a article–but not at the inauguratening or end unnarrow it’s not apparent that you’re quoting barely a constituent of the all.

Adding Clarification, Comment, Or Correction

Within articles, use balance brackets [ ] (not parentheses) to add your own straining, note, or punishment.

Use [sic] (significance “so” or “thus”) to specify that a misuse is in the fountain you’re quoting and is not your own.

Additional Information

Information On Summarizing And Paraphrasing Sources

American Heritage Dictionary of the English Talk (4th ed.). (2000). Retrieved January 7, 2002, from

Bazerman, C. (1995). The informed transcriber: Using fountains in the orders (5th ed). Boston: Houghton Mifflin.

Leki, I. (1995). Academic answerableness: Exploring rulees and strategies (2nd ed.) New York: St. Martin?s Press, pp. 185-211.

Leki describes the basic way introduceed in C, pp. 4-5.

Spatt, B. (1999). Answerableness from fountains (5th ed.) New York: St. Martin?s Press, pp. 98-119; 364-371.

Information Environing Peculiar Documentation Systems

The Answerableness Center has handouts explaining how to use abundant of the test instrumentation rules. You may seem at our public Web page on Documentation Systems, or you may inhibit out any of the subjoined peculiar Web pages.

If you’re not unmistakable which instrumentation rule to use, ask the passage professor who assigned your brochure.

  • American Psychological Association (APA)
  • Modern Talk Association (MLA)
  • Chicago/Turabian (A Footnote or Endnote System)
  • American Collective Science Association (APSA)
  • Council of Science Editors (CBE)
  • Numbered References

You may as-well question the subjoined plains:

  • American Medical Association, Manual for Authors and Editors
  • Council of Science Editors, CBE fashion Manual
  • The Chicago Manual of Style
  • MLA Handquantity for Writers of Elimination Papers
  • Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association


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