SOLUTION: GEOL1208 Southern Methodist Extreme Natural Hazards ?Learning Journal
CREATING GOOD LEARNING JOURNALS A HELPFUL GUIDE Matter, Minerals & Rocks 2 THOUGHTS ON THE COURSE This career is past than remembering and agreement. Quizzes are hither. A lot has to do delay alloting, analyzing, evaluating and even creating. Journals and tests are hither. This is Bloom’s [revised] Taxonomy. Matter, Minerals & Rocks 3 LEARNING JOURNAL • Construct an entrance astern each tabulate. Notebook or computer. • Conceive environing what you entertain read. What does it moderation to you? Do not transcribe a chronology of the tabulate. • As you advert you conciliate arise to see how you are recognizeledge and how you merge your learnings to your eparticularize to construct sentiment to you. Matter, Minerals & Rocks 4 WRITING LEARNING JOURNAL ENTRIES 1. Purpose (#1): aid you conceive past deeply environing – ❑ What you are recognizeledge, ❑ What it moderations to you, and ❑ How it merges delay your thoughts, eparticularize experiences, and/or the instrument. 2. Purpose (#2): advert and merge. 3. Purpose (#3): manner an ‘art-form’ that conciliate add elder profundity and enjoyment to your recognizeledge. 4. Purpose (#4): afford powerful intellectual tools delay fastidious thinking for good-fortune. BASIC REQUIREMENTS FOR A GOOD MARK • Entertain abundance entries. 2 to 5 are too few. Entertain past than 6. • Length: 100 language to 1000. Your choice, depending on your concern. • Use the pronoun “I” so I recognize you are ‘speaking.’ • Conceive environing what you are recognizeledge and what it moderations to you. • You may arise delay what occured in tabulate. Move ahead in your writing to advert on what this moderationt for you. • One entrance per tabulate. Date each entrance. • Low marks ( 6 entries. • Talk environing how you merge your recognizeledges to your estate! • Date each entrance. • They aid you acquire. • Intimate ways you effectiveness allot your recognizeledge. Slope Processes and Subsidence Unsung Hazards Dr. Howard Donohoe GEOL 1208.1, Environmental Geology Class 006-2, Wednesday, 9 October 2019 Turtle Mountain, Frank, AB. Subsidence of bulkyst hurl slide in Canadian truth, 29 April 1903. Today 1. 2. 3. Reflection. Preview of bulky drift and coastal orderes. Slope orderes. Earthquake redundant plantslide in El Salvador. Relatively unconsolidated phosphorescent hurls ruptures and streamed down spring during a Richter 7.6 worldquake. Slope Processes & Subsidence 2 Reflection We frequently don’t conceive of the hazards associated delay spring processes. Single boulders or bulky concretiones are very unraveled ventures! Slope Processes & Subsidence 3 Preview of Topics to Come What are the two drift orderes? What are the two coastal orderes? What are two tsunami orderes? Erosion. ◼ Deposition. ◼ Slope Processes & Subsidence 4 Slope Failure: Turtle Mountain – Frank slide Slope Processes & Subsidence 5 Turtle Mountain – Frank slide Slope Processes & Subsidence 6 Today 1. 2. 3. Reflection. Preview of bulky drift and coastal orderes. Slope orderes. Earthquake redundant plantslide in El Salvador. Relatively unconsolidated phosphorescent hurls ruptures and streamed down spring during a Richter 7.6 worldquake. Slope Processes & Subsidence 7 Topics ◼ ◼ ◼ ◼ ◼ Objectives and Apprehension Outcomes. Types of concretion motions and producers. Environmental geology. Interventions and venture decay. Subsidence. Slope Processes & Subsidence 8 Objectives – Spring Processes & Subsidence ◼ ◼ ◼ ◼ To recognize harsh consequence of concretion motions on springs. To unravel an instinct into the geological circumstances for concretion motions to occur. To acquire the decay actions that minimize pretends on humans. To recognize why decrease occurs. Slope Processes & Subsidence 9 Learning Outcomes – Spring Processes and Subsidence 1. 2. Name and explain the types of spring orderes based on opportunity and value. Explain the environmental geological circumstances for restation of these spring motions—both leading and outcomeant. 3. Apply your recognizeledge of producer and pretend for spring failures and decrease to intimate decay. Slope Processes & Subsidence 10 Types of Spring Processes ◼ ◼ ◼ Falls. Slumps and slides. Flows and avalanches. Slope Processes & Subsidence 11 All of these are termed Spring Failure. Slope Processes & Subsidence 12 Factors Influencing Spring Stability ◼ ◼ ◼ ◼ ◼ The validity of lugubriousness acts to sever the mountains down. Gravity is the immense leveler. Isostasy moves mountains up. Mass motion on springs occurs anyopportunity downward haul of lugubriousness balancecomes frictional validitys balance it. Shearing weight is the down spring haul on the hurl or debris. Shear ability is the hindrance to the skeep weight; once overcome, motion conciliate occur. Factors that balancecome skeep ability: closing of cohesion and fluids such as soak. Slope Processes & Subsidence 13 Angle of Repose ◼ ◼ ◼ Maximum inclination at which representative is stable. Angle varies delay material, fashion, and other irregularities. Weathering changes stability. Slope Processes & Subsidence 14 Affects of Fluids Slope demand from possible septic classification soak seepage. Septic tank seepage produced waste of cohesion and spring failure. Slope Processes & Subsidence 15 Effects of Vegetation Intense logging may produce spring inconstancy. Slope Processes & Subsidence Alaskan path cut. 16 Landslide – Debris Stream in Tibet From NASA Slope Processes & Subsidence 17 Landslide Astern a Few Months Slope Processes & Subsidence 18 Interventions and Mitigations Water exigency astern a embankment conciliate compel a bulky exigency, even small embankments such as driveway embankments, are sensitive. A simple discerption is to bleed the soak from astern the embankment. Slope Processes & Subsidence 19 Interventions and Mitigations Stone embankment, east verge Citadel Hill. Soak drainage to decrease exigency on embankment and obstruct subjection. Slope Processes & Subsidence 20 Interventions and Mitigations No drainage from astern embankment; exigency butting embankment into subjection. Slope Processes & Subsidence 21 Interventions and Mitigations Slope Processes & Subsidence 22 Interventions and Mitigations Rock bolting is very efficient. Slope Processes & Subsidence 23 Interventions –Nova Centre in Halifax Rock bolts needed on ~2 metre centres. Orientation of layering Very few hurl bolts needed beproducer aspect is at right inclination to layering. Slope Processes & Subsidence 24 Interventions – Halifax meeting centre Layering suraspect dipping steeply towards viewer. Real venture of spring demand delayout hurl bolts. Bolts are set at ~2 m centres. Orientation of layering Slope Processes & Subsidence 25 Interventions and Mitigations Slope Processes & Subsidence 26 Topics ◼ ◼ ◼ ◼ ◼ Objectives and Apprehension Outcomes. Types of concretion motions and producers. Environmental geology. Interventions and venture decay. Subsidence. Slope Processes & Subsidence 27 Subsidence ◼ ◼ ◼ Man-made – delaydraw of premise soak. Man-made – subjection of previous underpremise mine workings. Natural – drown retreats in limestone and gypsum. Slope Processes & Subsidence 28 Subsidence Slope Processes & Subsidence 29 Subsidence ◼ ◼ ◼ Sink retreats conceive primarily naturally in limestone areas. Roof subjection constructs the drown hole. Draught or too much groundsoak delaydrawal leaves the roof unsupported. The ‘classic’ drown retreat in Winter Park, FL. Slope Processes & Subsidence 30 Subsidence in Oxford, NS Early limits of decrease of drown retreat. Sink retreats has assiduous delay mud and sand and ample. Several weeks astern first appearance. Slope Processes & Subsidence 31 Review 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Slope demands and decrease are expressive geohazards that are not bulkyly courseic. Water is a expressive stance delay twain. Both orderes may occur straightly or unwillingly. Simple discerptions, such as relieving soak exigency and hurl bolting, achievement. Be informed of soak infiltrating springs. Slope Processes & Subsidence 32 Slope Processes and Subsidence – ‘Unsung Hazards’ Dr. Howard Donohoe GEOL 1208.1, Environmental Geology Turtle Mountain, Frank, AB. Subsidence of bulkyst hurl slide in Canadian truth, 29 April 1903. Mudflows Near Santa Barbara, CA ◼ ◼ ◼ ◼ ◼ Began delay harsh feelings in summer and gravitate. Denuded hillsides. County and alloticularize conducted destroy impost. Intense rainstorm unleashed soak, weathered hurl and befoul in a slurry – dreaded mudflows. Mudflows are outcomeant astern non geohazards of feeling and rain. Slope Processes & Subsidence 34 Fire Slope Processes & Subsidence 35 Aftermath Slope Processes & Subsidence 36 Risk Assessment Slope Processes & Subsidence 37 Mudflows Slope Processes & Subsidence 38 Slope Processes & Subsidence 39 Rock and Mud streams Slope Processes & Subsidence 40 Mudflows Slope Processes & Subsidence 41 1 Weathering and Erosion Geology 1208.1, Environmental Geology Class 07-2, 16 Oct 2019 Talk was fitted by Group 2 in 2015 and modified by Dr. Howard Donohoe Beach hurls at St. Martins, southern NB. All of these are the products of effortless weathering (abrasion) and erosion. Purpose To show how weathering and erosion operate. To To discuss rates. concatenate the orderes of weathering and erosion to ventureous world orderes. 2 Learning Outcomes by the end of Allot 2, students conciliate be cogent to… 3 1. Define and explain weathering and erosion, and chemical and efforthither weathering. 2. List the agents of weathering and erosion. 3. Discuss the commodities of sphere on rates of effortless and chemical weathering. 4. Apply your recognizeledge of weathering and erosion, their rates of action, and types and characteristics of hurls to explain how weathering and erosion influence ventureous world orderes. 4 Definitions ⚫ ⚫ Weathering: the uncertain efforthither and chemical orderes that producer exposed hurl to segregate. Erosion: the order by which the deportment of the world is worn far by the action of soak, glaciers, winds, waves, etc. 5 Chemical Weathering Is the breakdown of hurl by chemical reactions. 6 The most expressive reactions: carbonation, hydration, hydrolysis, oxidation, and ion remodel in discerption. Chemical weathering changes the composition of the hurl representative toward suraspect minerals, such as dusts. Water is specially efficient at introducing chemically erratic agents 7 Some Minerals Weather Faster High temperature Low temperature 8 Agents of Chemical Weathering 1. Organic and mineral acids. 2. Plants and lichens. 3. Microbiological motive. 4. Greatly assisted by soak and warm temperatures. 9 Mechanical Weathering Mechanical weathering can besides be referred to as PHYSICAL WEATHERING. It is the non-chemical breakdown of hurls. 10 Types of Efforthither Weathering 1. Wetting and arefaction. 2. Freezing and thawing. 3. Abrasion. 4. Salt crystallization. 5. Wedging ice. 6. Thermal by plants and expansioncontraction. 11 Rates of Weathering Granite – late. Marble – steadfast. Cemetery in Shediac, NB. 12 Rates of Weathering Water increases in capacity by 10% at 0C. 13 What influences weathering? Climate: wetness, dryness, location Wetness: humidity, rainfall Urban: organic compounds & acids, salt 14 Terrain condition: mountains, valleys 15 Common Agents of Erosion - the sea - bulky drifts - glaciers Keller’s essential Concepts 1. Population Growth 2. Sustainability 3. More inhabitants subsist on unstcogent premise. Use mind and instrument insurance. Risk anatomy for frugal coin into forthcoming. Earth as a classification Weathering 4. Hazardous World Processes 5. and erosion are allot of classification. Weathering and erosion produce stances. Scientific Apprehension and Values Trust scientists, truth, and or-laws course. 16 Review Mechanical 17 and chemical weathering. Which predominates? Depends on sphere and dampness. Temperature and dampness control twain. Erosion moves representative to another subsidence for deposition. Consider weathering and erosion in stipulations of Keller’s concepts. Rivers and Flooding Kyanna Gilks Marianne Hartnett Xinwei Zhao Yik Wang Lai Yujian Han Purpose To acquire and recognize concepts surrounding rivers and abundanceing. Learning Outcomes 1. Relate Keller’s Fundamental Concepts to Rivers and Flooding. 2. What is a bulky drift and what processes occur during basic transportation? 3. What are leading and resultant commoditiess of flooding? 4. How does bulky drift free pretend flooding? 5. What is the role of Government? What is a River? River: A bulky drift is a bulky, probable drift of copious water. Rivers are rest on whole continent and on approximately whole skin of plant. What is Flooding? Flood: Is a probable fact or occurrence whither a ingredient of plant (or area) that is usually dry plant, suddenly gets occult under water. Some abundances can occur suddenly and ebb straightly. River Systems ● In a bulky drift classification thither are four main allots; they are: ● Channels ● Meanders ● Levees ● Abundance Plains ● A medium is a wide strict or soakway b etween two plantmasses that lie arrest to each other. It can be the deepest allot of a waterway, or a narrow association of soak that connects two bulkyr bodies of soak. ● Levees are a outcome of an overbanked streams of rivers; civilized constructed levees aid protect plant neighboring to the bulky drift from abundanceing. ● Meanders are a series of curves, bends, loops, turns, or windings in the medium of a bulky drift, stream, or other watercourse. ● Abundance Plains are a flat suraspect that is neighboring to a bulky drift or drift that experiences occasional abundanceing. What Does a River Carry? ● A bulky drift streams downhill and it is bringing the lees delay it which is denominated the aggregate commit. ● The aggregate commit includes: the bed commit, the projecting commit, and the dissolved commit. ● Bed commit moves by bouncing, rolling, or skipping alloticles along the groundwork of a bulky drift channel. It is made up of sand and gravel and is accounting hither than for 10% of the aggregate commit. What Does a Bulky drift Carry? ● Projecting commit is composed of verify and dust. It is carried balance the driftbed by copious soak. The projecting commit accounts for 90% of the aggregate commit and it is what constructs a bulky drift contemplate swampy. ● Dissolved commit is carried chemical discerption and comes from chemical weathering of minerals in hurls, lees, and befoul in the drainage basin. The dissolved commit may construct the soak look like it effectiveness elegancy salty if thither are bulky aggregates of sodium chloride; or it could be “hard” soak if dissolved commit contains elevated aggregates of calcium and magnesium. River Processes Rivers are the basic walk for orderes such as erosion and token of leess Erosion: wearing far the befoul and hurls, this puts a lot of lees into the bulky drift Deposition: is the lees delighted by the bulky drift Erosion and the token of leess can be correlated to: ○ ○ ○ ○ Change in medium width, profundity, or spring of a bulky drift What the bed of a bulky drift is composed of (rock,gravel,sand,silt, or dust) Type and aggregate of vegetation Land use,such as cleansing a plant for forest The Nature of Erosion and Lees Deposition on Rivers ● ● ● ● The fleetness of the soak in a bulky drift has divergent speeds at divergent spots, this pretends erosion and token of sediments. Rivers that stream steadfaster erode it’s bank past than lateer moving bulky drifts. Streams that stream from mountains into plains are recognizen as alluvial fans Rivers that stream into the deep or some other association of still soak may ease leess that conceive a delta ● Rain ● Bulky drift balanceflow ● Hurricanes, Strong winds in coastal areas ● Dam breaking Why Do Rivers Flood? ● Ice and snow-melts (snowmelt abundance) ● Replenish premisewater ● Improves fertility ● Wetlands ● Renew fish stock Are Floods Always Negative? What is Bulky drift Discharge? ● Discharge is the capacity of soak that passes through a affordn cross minority per item opportunity, usually valued in hard feet per second (cfs) or hard meters per second (cms). ● It (besides denominated stream) is the fastidious value of the bulky drift. However, it is up-hill to value free, so the most common way streams are reputed in the instrument is by limit. In the circumstance of a abundance, intelligence reports conciliate frequently say that a bulky drift is "5 feet balance abundance limit". Floods and bulky drifts besides entertain a crown which is frequently reputed in connection to abundance limit as in "the bulky drift conciliate crown at 7 feet balance abundance limit tomorrow." What is Bulky drift Discharge? Here is a video https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DnZLLgLjVt0&t=40s The Leading Commodities of Flooding Hazards associated delay abundanceing can be disjoined into leading ventures. Throughout the decisive generation abundanceing has been one of the most costly disasters in stipulations of twain nature injury and civilized casualties. Major floods in China, for stance, killed environing 2 pet inhabitants in 1887, approximately 4 pet in 1931, and environing 1 pet in 1938 The 1993 abundance on the upper Mississippi Bulky drift and Midwest killed simply 47 inhabitants, but the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers estimates the aggregate economic waste at among 15 and 20 billion dollars. The Leading Commodities of Flooding ● ● ● ● Massive aggregates of erosion can be haughty by abundance soaks Water entering civilized built structures producer soak injury. Flooding of farmplant usually outcomes in outgrowth waste. Humans that get caught in the elevated fleetness abundance soaks are frequently drowned by the soak. ● Floodwaters can localize offal, ingredients of metal,wood, and toxic pollutants that can producer the outcomeant commoditiess of health ventures. The Leading Commodities of Flooding Here is the other video https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rKSntQ66Y0I How Flooding Can be a Secondary, Geological venture? Most ventureous order are besides Geologic Processes. What is outcomeant venture? Secondary Nature occur simply beproducer a leading commodities has producerd them. For stance, feelings ignited as a outcome of worldquakes, disruption of electrical power and soak service as a outcome of an earthquake, abundance, or hurricane, or abundanceing caused by a plantslide into a lake or bulky drift. Secondary Commodities of Flooding • Short-term pollution • Hunger • Disease • Fire ● The Emergency Management Office (EMO) ● Federal Role – Government Operations Centre (GOC) The Role of Government and Uncertain Bylaws, Regulations and Legislation ● Disaster Financial Assistance Arrangements (DFAA) ● 1950 in Southern Manitoba – multifarious valley towns and environing one sixth of Winnipeg were abundanceed. It was environing 51 days that the red bulky drift stayed balance the abundance limit. ● 1996 in Quebec – this disaster hit astern a massive raingravitate and caused balance 1.5 billion dollars in injury Some of The Major Floods in Canada ● 1997 Red Bulky drift abundance in Manitoba- this is recognizen as the abundance of the generation. The area was hit by a blizzard and soak levels rose 12 meters balance winter levels and it producerd the region to allege a particularize ...
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