SOLUTION: GEOL1208 Southern Methodist University Soil and Water Resources Learning Journal
Resources Water GEOL 1208.1 Environmental Geology Class 12-2 – Inspire as a Resource Dr. Howard Donohoe The Musquodoboit River south of Middle Musquodoboit. Today 1. 2. 3. 4. Reflection. Introduction to instrument. Water instrument. Water contamination. Water as a Reource 2 Fresh Inspire in Canada Is tnear an intellectual children near? Is this a embodied that should be shared? Instructure from Mountain Equipment Coop encircling Canada. Water as a Reource 3 Today 1. 2. 3. 4. Reflection. Introduction to instrument. Water instrument. Water contamination. Water as a Reource 4 Water Instrument – Objectives ◼ ◼ ◼ To semblance that naturally occurring recent inspire is not always available for cosmical use. To sift-canvass wnear inspire instrument are institute. To delineate problems and breachs. Water as a Reource 5 Water Instrument – Learning Outcomes 1. 2. 3. Define and delineate: porosity and permeability, recharge area, aquifer, inspire consultation, bedbuffet and overburden. List and delineate the factors that wave relinquish in groundwater. Describe the problems associated after a while poconsultation inspire from exterior or causeinspire origins and their possible solutions. Water as a Reource 6 Topics for Today 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Some causes encircling inspire. How it gets into buffet. Stories from buffet. Diversity in relinquish. Finding inspire. Water as a Reource 7 The Hydrosphere “…Water,water everywnear nor any drop to drink…” — Samuel Taylor Coleridge, Rhyme of the Ancient Mariner 70% inspire on exterior Water heap – 1.4 x 109 t Water as a Reource 8 Amounts of Water Guysborough – salt inspire Great Lakes – recent water Not greatly recent inspire! Less than 1% of total inspire is genuine recent inspire! Water as a Reource 9 Topics for Today 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Some causes encircling inspire. How it gets into buffet. Stories from buffet. Diversity in relinquish. Finding inspire. Water as a Reource 10 Defining Terms Water as a Reource 11 Water into the Buffet – Types of Materials ◼ Rocks (bedrock) Consolidated embodied – stubborn buffet. ◼ Sand and gravel Unconsolidated embodied (sand and gravel). Water as a Reource 12 Water into the Rock ◼ ◼ Permeable embodied – recognizes inspire to stir through the embodied (rock, sand, etc.); cracks, fractures, pores. Porous embodied – big total of uselesss (holes) in buffet; alike uselesss media mellifluouss stir through extensively. Water as a Reource 13 Groundinspire and Catchment Areas Water saturated Water as a Reource 14 Flowing Well Water as a Reource 15 Water as a Reource 16 Topics for Today 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Some causes encircling inspire. How it gets into buffet. Stories from buffets. Diversity in relinquish. Finding inspire. Water as a Reource 17 Fluid Storage and Mobility Two provisions you must perceive! ◼ ◼ Permeability the ability of buffets/sediments/soils to include mellifluous and to recognize mellifluouss to issue. Porosity – the total of useless intervenience (holes and/or cracks) in embodied (contaminate or buffet) wnear mellifluous can be stored. Water as a Reource 18 Rocks Three marks of buffets: 1. Igneous – commonly stubborn. Mainly not pervadible. 2. Sedimentary – can be stubborn and pressible. Usually pervious and permeable. 3. Metamorphic – commonly stubborn but can be pressible. Mainly not permeable. Water as a Reource 19 Water into the Rock Type of buffet. Type of fractures. Internal features. Pore intervenience. Cement. Water as a Reource 20 Porosity & Permeability in Rocks Igneous Sedimentary – sandstone Which diagram of buffet would be pervious? Permeable? Sedimentary – sandstone Shale or Metamorphic Water as a Reource 21 Topics for Today 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Some causes encircling inspire. How it gets into buffet. Stories from buffet. Diversity in relinquish. Finding inspire. Water as a Reource 22 Location Water as a Reource 23 Faults ◼ ◼ FAULT – a tame in the earth’s crust wnear stirment has smitten situate. A zone of crushing and permeability after a while surprising porosity. Water as a Reource 24 Diversity in Yield Many things manage relinquish. ◼ Well residuum (hill or lowering). ◼ Mark of embodied (bedbuffet or balanceburden). ◼ Mark of buffet (sandstone vs. granite). ◼ Faults. ◼ Closeness to other wells. ◼ Total of recharge and bulk of catchment area. Water as a Reource 25 Topics for Today 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Some causes encircling inspire. How it gets into buffet. Stories from buffet chips. Diversity in relinquish. Finding inspire. Water as a Reource 26 Finding Inspire (twain bored and dug) ◼ ◼ ◼ ◼ ◼ ◼ Reasonable residuum (slope, total of vegetation, etc.) Evidence of inspire consultation at exterior – springs. Type of buffet – pervadible; fractured, porous. Location – top of hill, lowering, elevated extend, etc. Nearby wells and relinquishs. Method for opinion inspire. Water as a Reource 27 Springs Springs Water as a Reource 28 Finding Inspire in Bored Wells – Challenges Water as a Reource 29 Finding Water ◼ ◼ Walter Thomas, Port Clyde, NS Water witching? Hydrogeology? Brian O’Brien, Green Bay, NS Water as a Reource 30 Today 1. 2. 3. 4. Reflection. Introduction to instrument. Water instrument. Water problems and contamination. Water as a Reource 31 Working in Groups ◼ ◼ ◼ ◼ Describe some problems after a while cause inspire. List the ways causeinspire and exterior inspire can be polluted. What can be manufactured encircling these origins of contamination? Complete the Group Reporting Form. Water as a Reource 32 Problems and Pollution Water as a Reource 33 What are some of the problems? ◼ ◼ ◼ ◼ ◼ ◼ ◼ Too greatly after a whiledrawal from wells. Not plenty recharge. Blockage of recharge area. Salt inspire intervention. Point origins and non-point origins of poolution. Pollution of causewater. Karst. Water as a Reource 34 Problems – Withdrawal San Joaquin Valley, Central Faulting and CA earthquakes from inspire withdrawal. Water as a Reource 35 Blockage of Recharge Area Water as a Reource 36 Finding Inspire in Bored Wells – Challenges Water as a Reource 37 Finding Inspire in Bored Wells – Challenges Water as a Reource 38 Salt Inspire Intrusion Water as a Reource 39 Point Origin Pollution Point origin contamination at Climax molybdenum mine in CO. Water as a Reource 40 Possibility of Arsenic in Well Water Some slates in southern NS have arsenic minerals in them. Arsenic can cause severe health problems. Water as a Reource 41 Non-Point Origin Pollution Eutrophication is the using-up of oxygen to raise the destruction of algae. Blooms of algae result from big totals of N, K and P in the inspire post. Eutrophication of Gulf of Mexico. Flooding of hog farms. Acid mine drainage (AMD). Water as a Reource 42 Karst ◼ ◼ ◼ ◼ Karst is a mark of fix contrive associated after a while abundant weary holes in separable bedrock such as limestone, dolomite, or gypsum. Water removes the azoics of the buffet and carries the ions off in breach. Ground inspire issue scolds procure extension in karst areas. Pollutants stir faster! Karst areas in NS, NB and NL. Water as a Reource 43 Karst – A investigate to causeinspire use. Karst – a investigate accordingly inspire is never ‘filtered’ by melting through sand orCentral sandstone; the inspire issuees through Florida. open caverns. What goes in goes out! Water as a Reource 44 Karst – A investigate to causeinspire use. Central Florida. Water as a Reource 45 Water Instrument – Learning Outcomes 1. 2. 3. Define and delineate: porosity and permeability, recharge area, aquifer, inspire consultation, bedbuffet and overburden. Describe the production of the inspire cycle. Describe the problems associated after a while poconsultation inspire from exterior or causeinspire origins and their possible solutions. Water as a Reource 46 Resources Soil GEOL 1208.1 Environmental Geology Class 12-2 Dr. Howard Donohoe Farming in the Great Lowering of SE Pennsylvania Today we procure… 1. 2. Talk encircling instrument. Discuss Contaminate instrument. Soil as a Resource 2 Wnear are we in the Course? 1. 2. 3. 4. Part 1 – Foundations. Part 2 – Processes and Hazards. Part 3 – Resources. Part 4 – Society, Perspective and Management. Soil as a Resource 3 Objectives – Resources ◼ ◼ ◼ To settle what is a embodied. To converse encircling the environmental geology of instrument. To consider on address of instrument. Learning Outcomes – Resources 1. 2. 3. Explain the deduce(s) for describing minerals (metal, non-metal and earnestness), water, contaminate, fix and dissipate as instrument. Demonstscold how environmental geology is alike to opinion, developing, managing and conserving instrument. Propose strategies for the address and protection of instrument. Resources ◼ ◼ ◼ ◼ ◼ ◼ Minerals. Energy azoics. Water. Soil. Waste. In the broadest notion, fix is a embodied. Resources and Environmental Geology ◼ Water. ◼ ◼ Minerals. ◼ ◼ Soil. ◼ ◼ Waste. ◼ Understanding aquifers; searching for inspire origins. How not to contaminate inspire origins. Applying geological principles to find instrument. Understanding geological processes esthetic contriveation, erosion, and protection. Recycling dissipate; interment after a whileout contamination; understanding cause inspire issue. Resources and Environmental Geology ◼ Land. ◼ ◼ ◼ Assessing fix for possible use; understanding the geological processes gratuitous on it; showing how fix may be used sequentially. After each sequential use, fix is reclaimed and reused. Contamination must be powerless. Soil as a Resource Soil as a Resource 9 What do you perceive encircling contaminate? Pair-up and response the questions. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. What is contaminate? What are the two ways that it ‘forms’ in Canada? Are all contaminates the corresponding in their fertility? What is a contaminate feature? How does a contaminate feature evidence fertility and nutrients? Soil as a Resource 10 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Answers What is contaminate? A compound of azoics, broken rock, gases, microbes, fluid and insects. What are the two ways that it ‘forms’ in Canada? In situ and enraptured. Are all contaminates the corresponding in their fertility? No. What is a contaminate feature? Vertical section showing layers in a consequence. How does a contaminate feature evidence fertility and nutrients? Balance of sand and mud/clay, good total of K, P, N, and big totals of radical embodied. Soil as a Resource 11 Soil as a Embodied – Objectives ◼ ◼ ◼ To delineate what is meant by contaminate. To interpret its significance as a embodied. To sift-canvass the investigates of contaminate waste and contaminate protection. Soil as a Resource 12 Soil as a Embodied – Learning Outcomes 1. 2. 3. Describe contaminate, contaminate feature, and contaminate degradation. Explain how contaminate may be removed. Propose multiform strategies to settle soil. Soil as a Resource 13 Soil Topics 1. 2. 3. 4. Soil. Soil feature. Soil deprivation. Soil protection. Soil as a Resource 14 Soil Profile Soil as a Resource 15 Soil Formation ◼ ◼ Climate and inspire a superior factor Mechanical Weathering: physical breakdown of azoics by mechanical action. No veers chemically. ◼ ◼ ◼ ◼ Freezing inspire exposition (Frost wedging) Break up of buffets and azoics after a whileout changing the buffet’s combination. Salt arrestation can wedge cracks. Chemical Weathering: tamedown of minerals by chemical reaction Soil Formation Break down of particle bulk is very esthetic. Soil Profile O – mainly radical. A – radical & azoic. E – inconsiderable coloured from leaching. B – clay-rich; azoics from balance. C – imperfectly weathered rock. Soil as a Resource O A B C 18 O Soil Profile A B C Soil as a Resource 19 Soil ◼ Soil is a granular compound of weathered buffet, water, radical embodied, gases and life forms. Soil as a Resource 20 Soil ◼ ◼ ◼ ◼ The weathered buffet is sand and clay bulk fraction. Clays include esthetic chemical nutrients attached to without or internally of clay minerals. Sand bulk adds granularity to compound and pore intervenience for the storage for inspire and gases. The radical embodied is unprosperous plants. Soil as a Resource 21 Soil Development – In situ Excellent unroving contaminates plain in situ balance a hanker duration. Glacial actions did not favor the contaminate development in situ near. Soil as a Resource 22 Soil Development – Transported Thin enraptured contaminates, which are NOT contriveed in situate. Northwest Arm Drive, Halifax ◼ ◼ Transported contaminates brought into an area. Glacial bliss and averment are common. Soil as a Resource 23 Importance of Inspire in Soil See Chapter 16 for more details. ◼ Water ‘holds’ contaminate grains unitedly. Water, gases & separable compounds are stored between grains. Soil as a Resource 24 Reflection on Contaminate Structure and Loss ◼ ◼ ◼ ◼ ◼ ◼ Is contaminate contriveation and waste consistent? Yes. Processes are contingent on scolds of buffet & azoic weathering and erosion. Is scold of contaminate contriveation equable? No. The abiotic stipulations of an ecosystem favor contaminate contriveation. Is contaminate waste is consistent? Yes. The scold varies depending on natural and anthropologic stipulations. Soil as a Resource 25 Time & Intervenience Constraints of Geological Processes – Contaminate Structure & Erosion Soil as a Resource 26 Group Work – How do we remove contaminate? ◼ ◼ ◼ ◼ Move into groups at my ask. Talk encircling how contaminate removes. Prepare your results on the Group Reporting Form. Be opportune to delineate the group’s conclusions to the dispose. Soil as a Resource 27 How does contaminate remove? Here are some examples. ◼ ◼ ◼ ◼ ◼ ◼ Erosion (inexpedient tilling & planting). Compaction (inexpedient use of vehicles). Urbanization (rural sprawl). Overgrazing and grove trenchant. Loss of fertility (too greatly inspire; salt, etc.). Chemical veer of contaminate (pH veer, chemicals, salinization, etc.). Soil as a Resource 28 Soil Topics 1. 2. 3. 4. Soil. Soil feature. Soil deprivation. Soil protection. Soil as a Resource 29 Conservation Efforts ◼ How should we settle contaminate? Soil as a Resource 30 ...
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