What is a virus’ reason for existing

Questions before lecture 141. What is a virus’ reason for existing?a) kill cellsb) make sure its genome survives in evolutionary timec) make as many virus particles as possibled) maintain it’s host’s population size2. How can a genetic system keep track of the passage of time?3. Plasmids can be viewed as parasitic “selfish” DNAs. However, many plasmids carry genes that provide selective advantages to their hosts, such as resistance to antibiotics. How does this generosity on the part of the plasmid actually benefit the plasmid?4. What happens to a population without predators? (You may imagine what happens if you introduce rabbits to an isolated island with abundant resources but no foxes. ) We humans are no longer significantly worried by predators such as lions and tigers and bears–but is there any fundamental difference between being killed by a lion and being killed by HIV? Is there any fundamental difference between a “predator” and a “parasite”?5. How would you compare the “fitness” of two different phages?6. Quarantine involves isolating individuals as soon as they show any evidence of a disease. Why is quarantine often effective in stopping the spread of human diseases? If your goal were simply to prevent the spread of disease, and you had no ethics, would it be as effective to simply kill people as soon as they showed any evidence of a disease?7. Go back to your Bis2A notes and make sure you’re completely familiar with mutations. What causes mutations? What is meant by silent, missense, and nonsense mutations? What is meant by frameshift, deletion, and duplication? What is meant by genotype, phenotype, and “wild-type”? What’s the difference between “mutant” and “mutation”?8. Imagine you have made some observations on the expression of a gene. You find that under some conditions, it’s transcribed 1,000 more than under other conditions. Can you tell from this information that this gene is positively regulated or negatively regulated?9. What effect does a nonsense mutation in the gene for a regulatory DNA binding protein have on the expression of other genes?10. Gregor Mendel did his work in genetics on pea plants, which are diploid. Could he have developed the concepts of “dominant” and “recessive” in haploid organisms? What do “dominant” and “recessive” mean inside the cell, on a gene or protein level?

What is a virus’ reason for existing

Question
Questions before lecture 14

1. What is a virus’ reason for existing?
a) kill cells
b) make sure its genome survives in evolutionary time
c) make as many virus particles as possible
d) maintain it’s host’s population size

2. How can a genetic system keep track of the passage of time?

3. Plasmids can be viewed as parasitic “selfish” DNAs. However, many plasmids carry genes that provide selective advantages to their hosts, such as resistance to antibiotics. How does this generosity on the part of the plasmid actually benefit the plasmid?

4. What happens to a population without predators? (You may imagine what happens if you introduce rabbits to an isolated island with abundant resources but no foxes.) We humans are no longer significantly worried by predators such as lions and tigers and bears–but is there any fundamental difference between being killed by a lion and being killed by HIV? Is there any fundamental difference between a “predator” and a “parasite”?

5. How would you compare the “fitness” of two different phages?

6. Quarantine involves isolating individuals as soon as they show any evidence of a disease. Why is quarantine often effective in stopping the spread of human diseases? If your goal were simply to prevent the spread of disease, and you had no ethics, would it be as effective to simply kill people as soon as they showed any evidence of a disease?

7. Go back to your Bis2A notes and make sure you’re completely familiar with mutations. What causes mutations? What is meant by silent, missense, and nonsense mutations? What is meant by frameshift, deletion, and duplication? What is meant by genotype, phenotype, and “wild-type”? What’s the difference between “mutant” and “mutation”?

8. Imagine you have made some observations on the expression of a gene. You find that under some conditions, it’s transcribed 1,000 more than under other conditions. Can you tell from this information that this gene is positively regulated or negatively regulated?

9. What effect does a nonsense mutation in the gene for a regulatory DNA binding protein have on the expression of other genes?

10. Gregor Mendel did his work in genetics on pea plants, which are diploid. Could he have developed the concepts of “dominant” and “recessive” in haploid organisms? What do “dominant” and “recessive” mean inside the cell, on a gene or protein level?