What is the difference between aerobe and anaerobe bacteria

Question 1What is the difference between aerobe and anaerobe bacteria?Anaerobes grow best with oxygen while aerobes grow best without oxygen. Anaerobes grow best at relative high temperatures, while aerobes grow best at relative lowtemperatures. Aerobes grow best with oxygen, while anaerobes grow best without oxygen. Aerobes grow best at relative high temperatures, while anaerobes grow best at relative lowtemperatures. Question 2What is the difference between the Gram-positive and Gram-negative cells?The cell wall of the Gram-positive and the Gram-negative cells are of different chemical composition,and they bind differently to the dye in the Gram stain. The Gram-positive cells have some of their DNA in the cell wall, while the Gram-negative cells haveall of their DNA inside the cell membrane. The proteins in the Gram-positive cell membrane bind the dye in the Gram stain stronger than theproteins in the Gram-negative cell membrane. The Gram-positive cells have the cell wall outside the cell membrane, while the Gram-negative cellshave two membranes and the cell wall is in between the two membranes. Question 3Is it possible for the same bacterium to exist both as planktonic and biofilm?Yes, but only in the environment not in the human bodyNo, only bacteria in the environment can form biofilmsNo, only pathogenic bacteria can form biofilmsYes, most if not all bacteria can exist in both formsQuestion 4What is the main difference between bacteria in planktonic and biofilm mode?The colour and smell of the bacteriaThe size and shape of the bacteriaThe ability to perform quorum sensing (cell to cell communication)The physical aggregation and tolerance to antibiotics and host defenceQuestion 5What is the most studied form of bacteria?The biofilm form since this is how Robert Koch observed bacteria for the first timeThe planktonic form and the biofilm form have been equally studied over the yearsThe planktonic form, growth in shake flasksThe biofilm form, since this is how most bacteria liveQuestion 6Can planktonic and biofilm bacteria be treated the same way?No, planktonic bacteria are more difficult to treat since they can escape from the antibiotics or hostdefenceNo, biofilm bacteria are much more tolerant to almost everythingYes, but only if they are not resistant to the drugYes, all bacteria are the same and the growth form does not matterQuestion 7Which part of the infection pathogenesis is impaired in chronic infections?Recruitment of the immune systemPenetration and adhesion to receptorsMultiplication of the microorganismElimination of the microorganismQuestion 8Which of the following infections are due to biofilm formation?Foreign-material associated infectionsMeningitisCystitisSepsisQuestion 9An acute infection is defined as: An infection that can be treated with antibioticsAn infection caused by virusesAn infection that can be eliminated by the immune systemA short-term infectionQuestion 10The main pathology of acute bacterial infection is due to: Virulence factors (toxin) productionThe metabolic activity of the bacteriaThe antibiotic susceptibility of the bacteriaThe multiplication rate of the bacteriaQuestion 1What is the hallmark of a biofilm?Attachment of bacteria to a surface. Increased virulence of the bacteria causing acute infections. Quorum sensing (cell to cell signalling) is turned on. Aggregation of bacteria and extreme tolerance toward antibiotics and the host defence. Question 2How could one reverse the tolerance of the biofilm, when knowing what contributes to the tolerance?Removing the nutrients and oxygen to slow down the growth. Using less antibiotics to prevent antibiotic resistance. Physical disruption of the bacteria to the planktonic state. Treating the patient with anti-inflammatory drugs to prevent the host defence. Question 3Which part of the host response is very important for the development of biofilm infections in thelungs of patients with cystic fibrosis?Inflammatory response. Adaptive Immune response. Mucociliary escalator. Innate Immune response. Question 4What is the inflammatory response a reaction to?Hydrogen peroxide. Antigens. Tissue dammage. Antibodies. Question 5What is consumed by the PMNs during the respiratory burst?Molecular oxygen. Lactate. Reactive oxygen species. Nitrate. Question 6What cell type accumulates in the synovial fluid in patients with device related prostethic kneeinfection?Mast cells. PMNs. T-cells. Plasma cells. Question 7Which type of T-helper cell response is associated with a milder lung disease in CF patients withchronic P. aeruginosa lung infection?Th1 response. Th2 response. Th17 response. Thαβ responseQuestion 8In which part of P. aeruginosa biofilms is ciprofloxacin acting bactericidal?At the superficial layers. Through the whole biofilm. Only in the areas with low oxygen tension. In the deep layers. Question 9In which part of P. aeruginosa biofilms is colistin acting bactericidal?At the superficial layers. In the deep layers. Through the whole biofilm. Only in the areas with low oxygen tension. Question 10The adaptive tolerance of P. aeruginosa biofilms to treatment with beta-lactams is due to : Low oxygen-tension. Low metabolic rates. Poor penetration through the alginate matrix. Production of beta-lactamases. Question 1Which statement is true about the present of Bacterial cells in the human body: Bacterial cells are found In numbers approximately equal to that of human cells. Bacterial cells are only present on the skin. Bacterial cells are found in 10-fold higher numbers than human cells. Bacterial cells are only present when we are sick. Question 2Which statement is true about environmental and commensal biofilm: They have mainly negative impact on human health. They have a low diversity. They have a high diversity. Question 3Which of the following bacteria are among the first adhere to a clean tooth surface?Veillonella parvula. Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans. Streptococcus sanguinis. Prevotella intermedia. Question 4Cariogenic bacteria are characterized by following virulence factor: They are proteolytic. They are able to grow and metabolize at low pH. They produce sulphur and ammonia. Question 5Which of the following factors make the bacteria virulent for periodontitis: They lower the pH of the biofilmThey are proteolyticThey can colonize the teeth earlyQuestion 6The most common oral biofilm mediated diseases are caused by: All the bacteria in the dental biofilm are causing disease. One specific non-commensal bacterium is introduced to the biofilm. The environment of the biofilm is changed and the growth of virulent species is favoured. Question 7What is the disadvantage with molecular techniques for the identification of the skin microflora?Too many organisms are found. Molecular techniques do not distinguish between living and dead organisms. Only Gram-negative bacteria are identified. Only Gram-positive bacteria are identified. Question 8The skin is an important barrier against invasion by microorganisms, which part of the skin is themajor physical barrier?Basal layer of the epidermis. Subcutaneous fat layer. Dermis. The outermost horny layer. Question 9Shedding of dead skin cells prevent invasion of microorganisms, how often is normal epidermisrenewed?Every month. Never. Once daily. Weekly. Question 10Skin moisture promotes growth of: Corynebacteria. Coli bacteria. Staph. aureus. Staph. epidermidis. Question 1What is the most correct definition of a chronic wound?A wound that is more than three months oldA wound that will never healA wound present for more than one yearQuestion 2What is likely to be present in a wound that have a one-year history, heals very slowly and is verylarge?Pseudomonas aeruginosaBeta-haemolytic streptococciMorganella morganiStahphylococcus aureusQuestion 3A late periprosthetic joint infection is traditionally treated by: one-stage revisionjoint washouttwo-stage revisionlong-term antibioticsQuestion 4Which of the following is not considered a separate type of periprosthetic joint infection?Acute postoperative infectionUnexpected positive culture from revision procedureAcute very late infectionAcute late infectionQuestion 5The role of biofilm in middle ear infections isSometimes provenProven in animal studiesEasy to detectStill not provenQuestion 6Which element is not part of the paradigm for typical periprosthetic joint infections?Forming a biofilm on the implantsSpontaneously resolveInoculation during surgeryEffect of prophylactic antibioticsQuestion 7Bacteria and viruses most often ascend the middle ear from: The bloodThe nasopharyngeal spaceThe lymphThe lungsQuestion 8Otitis media with effusion (OME) is: An inflammatory middle ear diseaseCharacterized by pus in the middle earAn acute infection in the middle earA rare middle ear infectionQuestion 9What is the most severe complication of patients suffering from cystic fibrosis?They suffer from recurrent acute bloodstream infections which slowly degrade their healthThey get chronic infected wounds in the oral cavity which slowly disable digestionThey get chronic lung infections which slowly degrade their lung functionThey suffer from bad sight and chronic headachesQuestion 10What is a cystic fibrosis?It is a genetically inherited disease affecting only the respiratory tracts of the patientsIt is lifestyle related condition like obesityIt is a genetically inherited disease affecting the sight and balance of the patientsIt is a genetically inherited disease affecting multiple organs of the patientsQuestion 1Are bacteria in biofilms unculturable?Yes, that is the hallmark of biofilm infectionsNo, but they have to be correctly sampled, processed and culturedNo, only if they are attached to a surfaceQuestion 2How is the PK/PD parameters of beta-lactams changed in biofilms formed by bacteria producingbeta-lactamase?from time-dependent to concentration-dependentfrom dose-dependent to time-dependentfrom concentration dependent to time-dependentfrom dose-dependent to concentration-dependentQuestion 3Which of the following antibiotics has a concentration-dependent killing in planktonic cells? (twoanswers are correct, just pick one of them)beta-lactamscolistinaminoglycosides (tobramycin)ciprofloxacin (quinolones)Question 4A way to prevent the development of antibiotic resistance in biofilms is to use: low dosages of antibioticscombination therapy (two different groups of antibiotics)short-period of antibiotic treatmentmonotherapy (treatment with one antibiotic)Question 5Where is bacterial biofilm situated in the chronic wound?On the surface, in the wound-tissue and in some cases deeper in the apparently normal tissueOnly on the surfaceOn the surface and in the wound-tissueQuestion 6In order to diminish development of antibiotic resistance it is important that a carrier of localantibiotics: Release high concentrations of antibiotics in the initial phase, have a short phase of lowconcentration and release all antibioticsRelease high amount of antibiotic in the beginning and sustain release in lower concentrations for aprolonged period of timeRelease the antibiotic in a low concentration over a long timeQuestion 7What is/are limitation(s) of laboratory culture in determining a biofilm associated infection?Samples must be disrupted for laboratory culture and therefore in situ localisation of the infectioncannot be determinedCulture may take several days to grow a pathogenCulture may not indicate an infectious agent due to previous use of antibiotics in the patientAll of the answersQuestion 8Which of the following is NOT a criterion for biofilm infection?Infection is localised to a particular site in the hostAggregated pathogenic bacteria are presentBacteria are associated with a surfaceEvidence of ineffective host clearance with confined areas of PMNs/inflammatory cells surroundingclusters of bacteriaQuestion 9In vitro biofilms always mimics biofilms in chronic infectionsYes, a biofilm can always be recognized by the mushroom shape structuresYes, but the biofilms in chronic infections grow much fasterNo, in vitro biofilms are smaller and less structured than in vivo biofilmsNo, usually in vivo biofilms are smaller and less structured than in vitro biofilmsQuestion 10It is postulated that environmental changes could have an effect in the treatment of chronicinfections. How is this potentially accomplished?Application of appropriate measures that address the underlying conditionsDressing changeLocal antisepticsAll the answersSurgical revision of the ulcersQuestion 1What are ‘pathoadaptive genes’ ?Genes that are mutated to provide a fitness disadvantage in relation to host adaptationGenes that are mutated to provide a fitness advantage in relation to host adaptationGenes that are expressed during host infection and provide a fitness advantage in relation to hostadaptationGenes in the host that are mutated to provide a fitness advantage in relation to bacterial infectionsQuestion 2What is pseudomonas aeruginosa?an opportunistic bacterial pathogenan commensal bacteriuman non-pathogenic bacteriuman pathogenic fungiQuestion 3The concept of ‘within-host evolution’ refers to: Regulatory adaptation of bacterial pathogens during infectionEvolutionary adaptation of bacterial pathogens during infectionRegulatory adaptation of the host in response to bacterial pathogensEvolutionary adaptation of the host in response to bacterial pathogensQuestion 4Which of the following methods/techniques has been instrumental for our understanding of ‘withinhost evolution’?Systematic sampling and storage of bacterial pathogens, and whole-genome sequencing of thesepathogensSystematic sampling and storage of bacterial pathogens, and efficient use of antibiotics to eradicatethese pathogensSystematic sampling and storage of bacterial pathogens, and phenotypic analysis of thesepathogensWhole-genome sequencing of bacterial pathogens and their hostsQuestion 5What is the primary target of the antibiotic ‘Azithromycin’ ?The bacterial transcriptional machineryThe bacterial ribosomeThe bacterial cell envelopeGyrAQuestion 6The ability of an organism to reproduce and survive is described by its: FitnessExistenceMutationRegulationQuestion 7Natural selection leads to: Extinction of the more fit phenotypesDominance of the more fit phenotypesNothing in biofilms – it is irrelevantLess adapted populationsQuestion 8Which one of these is important in maintaining cooperative traits in microbes?Kin selectionBiofilmsQuorum sensingToxin productionQuestion 9Variants with distinct colony morphology occur: More frequently in biofilms compared to planktonic culturesNever in biofilm or planktonic culturesNever in biofilmsLess frequently in biofilms compared to planktonic culturesQuestion 10Which one of these types of social behaviour provides a fitness cost to the actor and a fitness benefitto the recipient of the behaviour ?SelfishnessMutualismAltruismSpite

Originally posted 2018-07-18 04:53:17. Republished by Blog Post Promoter